|2okj, resolution 2.30Å ()|
|Gene:||GAD1, GAD, GAD67 (Homo sapiens)|
The X-ray crystal structure of the 67kDa isoform of Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD67)
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is synthesized by two isoforms of the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65 and GAD67). GAD67 is constitutively active and is responsible for basal GABA production. In contrast, GAD65, an autoantigen in type I diabetes, is transiently activated in response to the demand for extra GABA in neurotransmission, and cycles between an active holo form and an inactive apo form. We have determined the crystal structures of N-terminal truncations of both GAD isoforms. The structure of GAD67 shows a tethered loop covering the active site, providing a catalytic environment that sustains GABA production. In contrast, the same catalytic loop is inherently mobile in GAD65. Kinetic studies suggest that mobility in the catalytic loop promotes a side reaction that results in cofactor release and GAD65 autoinactivation. These data reveal the molecular basis for regulation of GABA homeostasis.
GABA production by glutamic acid decarboxylase is regulated by a dynamic catalytic loop., Fenalti G, Law RH, Buckle AM, Langendorf C, Tuck K, Rosado CJ, Faux NG, Mahmood K, Hampe CS, Banga JP, Wilce M, Schmidberger J, Rossjohn J, El-Kabbani O, Pike RN, Smith AI, Mackay IR, Rowley MJ, Whisstock JC, Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2007 Apr;14(4):280-6. Epub 2007 Mar 25. PMID:17384644
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
[DCE1_HUMAN] Defects in GAD1 are the cause of cerebral palsy spastic quadriplegic type 1 (CPSQ1) [MIM:603513]. A non-progressive disorder of movement and/or posture resulting from defects in the developing central nervous system. Affected individuals manifest symmetrical, non-progressive spasticity and no adverse perinatal history or obvious underlying alternative diagnosis. Developmental delay, mental retardation and sometimes epilepsy can be part of the clinical picture.
[DCE1_HUMAN] Catalyzes the production of GABA.
About this Structure
- Fenalti G, Law RH, Buckle AM, Langendorf C, Tuck K, Rosado CJ, Faux NG, Mahmood K, Hampe CS, Banga JP, Wilce M, Schmidberger J, Rossjohn J, El-Kabbani O, Pike RN, Smith AI, Mackay IR, Rowley MJ, Whisstock JC. GABA production by glutamic acid decarboxylase is regulated by a dynamic catalytic loop. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2007 Apr;14(4):280-6. Epub 2007 Mar 25. PMID:17384644 doi:10.1038/nsmb1228
- ↑ Lynex CN, Carr IM, Leek JP, Achuthan R, Mitchell S, Maher ER, Woods CG, Bonthon DT, Markham AF. Homozygosity for a missense mutation in the 67 kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase in a family with autosomal recessive spastic cerebral palsy: parallels with Stiff-Person Syndrome and other movement disorders. BMC Neurol. 2004 Nov 30;4(1):20. PMID:15571623 doi:10.1186/1471-2377-4-20