Crystal structure of ERK2 in complex with N,N-dimethyl-4-(4-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamide
[MK01_HUMAN] Serine/threonine kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK3/ERK1 are the 2 MAPKs which play an important role in the MAPK/ERK cascade. They participate also in a signaling cascade initiated by activated KIT and KITLG/SCF. Depending on the cellular context, the MAPK/ERK cascade mediates diverse biological functions such as cell growth, adhesion, survival and differentiation through the regulation of transcription, translation, cytoskeletal rearrangements. The MAPK/ERK cascade plays also a role in initiation and regulation of meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells by phosphorylating a number of transcription factors. About 160 substrates have already been discovered for ERKs. Many of these substrates are localized in the nucleus, and seem to participate in the regulation of transcription upon stimulation. However, other substrates are found in the cytosol as well as in other cellular organelles, and those are responsible for processes such as translation, mitosis and apoptosis. Moreover, the MAPK/ERK cascade is also involved in the regulation of the endosomal dynamics, including lysosome processing and endosome cycling through the perinuclear recycling compartment (PNRC); as well as in the fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus during mitosis. The substrates include transcription factors (such as ATF2, BCL6, ELK1, ERF, FOS, HSF4 or SPZ1), cytoskeletal elements (such as CANX, CTTN, GJA1, MAP2, MAPT, PXN, SORBS3 or STMN1), regulators of apoptosis (such as BAD, BTG2, CASP9, DAPK1, IER3, MCL1 or PPARG), regulators of translation (such as EIF4EBP1) and a variety of other signaling-related molecules (like ARHGEF2, DCC, FRS2 or GRB10). Protein kinases (such as RAF1, RPS6KA1/RSK1, RPS6KA3/RSK2, RPS6KA2/RSK3, RPS6KA6/RSK4, SYK, MKNK1/MNK1, MKNK2/MNK2, RPS6KA5/MSK1, RPS6KA4/MSK2, MAPKAPK3 or MAPKAPK5) and phosphatases (such as DUSP1, DUSP4, DUSP6 or DUSP16) are other substrates which enable the propagation the MAPK/ERK signal to additional cytosolic and nuclear targets, thereby extending the specificity of the cascade. May play a role in the spindle assembly checkpoint.                       Acts as a transcriptional repressor. Binds to a [GC]AAA[GC] consensus sequence. Repress the expression of interferon gamma-induced genes. Seems to bind to the promoter of CCL5, DMP1, IFIH1, IFITM1, IRF7, IRF9, LAMP3, OAS1, OAS2, OAS3 and STAT1. Transcriptional activity is independent of kinase activity.                      
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signal transduction is a key oncogenic pathway implicated in a variety of human cancers. We have identified a novel series of pyrazolylpyrroles as inhibitors of ERK. Aided by the discovery of two distinct binding modes for the pyrazolylpyrrole scaffold, structure-guided optimization culminated in the discovery of 6p, a potent and selective inhibitor of ERK.
Flipped out: structure-guided design of selective pyrazolylpyrrole ERK inhibitors.,Aronov AM, Baker C, Bemis GW, Cao J, Chen G, Ford PJ, Germann UA, Green J, Hale MR, Jacobs M, Janetka JW, Maltais F, Martinez-Botella G, Namchuk MN, Straub J, Tang Q, Xie X J Med Chem. 2007 Mar 22;50(6):1280-7. Epub 2007 Feb 15. PMID:17300186
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.