[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.
N-Hydroxysulfamide is a 2000-fold more potent inhibitor of the zinc enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 126.96.36.199) as compared to sulfamide. It also inhibits other physiologically relevant isoforms, such as the tumor-associated CA IX and XII (K(I)s in the range of 0.865-1.34microM). In order to understand the binding of this inhibitor to the enzyme active site, the X-ray crystal structure of the human hCA II-N-hydroxysulfamide adduct was resolved. The inhibitor coordinates to the active site zinc ion by the ionized primary amino group, participating in an extended network of hydrogen bonds with amino acid residues Thr199, Thr200 and two water molecules. The additional two hydrogen bonds in which N-hydroxysulfamide bound to hCA II is involved as compared to the corresponding adduct of sulfamide may explain its higher affinity for the enzyme, also providing hints for the design of tight-binding CA inhibitors possessing an organic moiety substituting the NH group in the N-hydroxysulfamide structure.
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: the X-ray crystal structure of the adduct of N-hydroxysulfamide with isozyme II explains why this new zinc binding function is effective in the design of potent inhibitors.,Temperini C, Winum JY, Montero JL, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007 May 15;17(10):2795-801. Epub 2007 Feb 28. PMID:17346964
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Venta PJ, Welty RJ, Johnson TM, Sly WS, Tashian RE. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Belgian family is caused by a point mutation at an invariant histidine residue (107 His----Tyr): complete structure of the normal human CA II gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Nov;49(5):1082-90. PMID:1928091
↑ Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS. Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1804-8. PMID:1542674
↑ Soda H, Yukizane S, Yoshida I, Koga Y, Aramaki S, Kato H. A point mutation in exon 3 (His 107-->Tyr) in two unrelated Japanese patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency with central nervous system involvement. Hum Genet. 1996 Apr;97(4):435-7. PMID:8834238
↑ Shah GN, Bonapace G, Hu PY, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and brain calcification): novel mutations in CA2 identified by direct sequencing expand the opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation. Hum Mutat. 2004 Sep;24(3):272. PMID:15300855 doi:10.1002/humu.9266
↑ Briganti F, Mangani S, Scozzafava A, Vernaglione G, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 Oct;4(5):528-36. PMID:10550681
↑ Kim CY, Whittington DA, Chang JS, Liao J, May JA, Christianson DW. Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. J Med Chem. 2002 Feb 14;45(4):888-93. PMID:11831900
↑ Temperini C, Winum JY, Montero JL, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: the X-ray crystal structure of the adduct of N-hydroxysulfamide with isozyme II explains why this new zinc binding function is effective in the design of potent inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007 May 15;17(10):2795-801. Epub 2007 Feb 28. PMID:17346964 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2007.02.068