Crystal structure of the Carbonic Anhydrase II complexed with hydroxysulfamide inhibitor
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
N-Hydroxysulfamide is a 2000-fold more potent inhibitor of the zinc enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 184.108.40.206) as compared to sulfamide. It also inhibits other physiologically relevant isoforms, such as the tumor-associated CA IX and XII (K(I)s in the range of 0.865-1.34microM). In order to understand the binding of this inhibitor to the enzyme active site, the X-ray crystal structure of the human hCA II-N-hydroxysulfamide adduct was resolved. The inhibitor coordinates to the active site zinc ion by the ionized primary amino group, participating in an extended network of hydrogen bonds with amino acid residues Thr199, Thr200 and two water molecules. The additional two hydrogen bonds in which N-hydroxysulfamide bound to hCA II is involved as compared to the corresponding adduct of sulfamide may explain its higher affinity for the enzyme, also providing hints for the design of tight-binding CA inhibitors possessing an organic moiety substituting the NH group in the N-hydroxysulfamide structure.
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: the X-ray crystal structure of the adduct of N-hydroxysulfamide with isozyme II explains why this new zinc binding function is effective in the design of potent inhibitors.,Temperini C, Winum JY, Montero JL, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007 May 15;17(10):2795-801. Epub 2007 Feb 28. PMID:17346964
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.