SLAS-micelle bound alpha-synuclein
[SYUA_HUMAN] Note=Genetic alterations of SNCA resulting in aberrant polymerization into fibrils, are associated with several neurodegenerative diseases (synucleinopathies). SNCA fibrillar aggregates represent the major non A-beta component of Alzheimer disease amyloid plaque, and a major component of Lewy body inclusions. They are also found within Lewy body (LB)-like intraneuronal inclusions, glial inclusions and axonal spheroids in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type 1. Defects in SNCA are the cause of Parkinson disease type 1 (PARK1) [MIM:168601]. A complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by bradykinesia, resting tremor, muscular rigidity and postural instability. Additional features are characteristic postural abnormalities, dysautonomia, dystonic cramps, and dementia. The pathology of Parkinson disease involves the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the presence of Lewy bodies (intraneuronal accumulations of aggregated proteins), in surviving neurons in various areas of the brain. The disease is progressive and usually manifests after the age of 50 years, although early-onset cases (before 50 years) are known. The majority of the cases are sporadic suggesting a multifactorial etiology based on environmental and genetic factors. However, some patients present with a positive family history for the disease. Familial forms of the disease usually begin at earlier ages and are associated with atypical clinical features.   Defects in SNCA are the cause of Parkinson disease type 4 (PARK4) [MIM:605543]. A complex neurodegenerative disorder with manifestations ranging from typical Parkinson disease to dementia with Lewy bodies. Clinical features include parkinsonian symptoms (tremor, rigidity, postural instability and bradykinesia), dementia, diffuse Lewy body pathology, autonomic dysfunction, hallucinations and paranoia. Defects in SNCA are the cause of dementia Lewy body (DLB) [MIM:127750]. A neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by mental impairment leading to dementia, parkinsonism, often with fluctuating cognitive function, visual hallucinations, falls, syncopal episodes, and sensitivity to neuroleptic medication. Brainstem or cortical intraneuronal accumulations of aggregated proteins (Lewy bodies) are the only essential pathologic features. Patients may also have hippocampal and neocortical senile plaques, sometimes in sufficient number to fulfill the diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer disease.
[SYUA_HUMAN] May be involved in the regulation of dopamine release and transport. Induces fibrillization of microtubule-associated protein tau. Reduces neuronal responsiveness to various apoptotic stimuli, leading to a decreased caspase-3 activation.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Partially folded proteins, characterized as exhibiting secondary structure elements with loose or absent tertiary contacts, represent important intermediates in both physiological protein folding and pathological protein misfolding. To aid in the characterization of the structural state(s) of such proteins, a novel structure calculation scheme is presented that combines structural restraints derived from pulsed EPR and NMR spectroscopy. The methodology is established for the protein alpha-synuclein (alphaS), which exhibits characteristics of a partially folded protein when bound to a micelle of the detergent sodium lauroyl sarcosinate (SLAS). By combining 18 EPR-derived interelectron spin label distance distributions with NMR-based secondary structure definitions and bond vector restraints, interelectron distances were correlated and a set of theoretical ensemble basis populations was calculated. A minimal set of basis structures, representing the partially folded state of SLAS-bound alphaS, was subsequently derived by back-calculating correlated distance distributions. A surprising variety of well-defined protein-micelle interactions was thus revealed in which the micelle is engulfed by two differently arranged antiparallel alphaS helices. The methodology further provided the population ratios between dominant ensemble structural states, whereas limitation in obtainable structural resolution arose from spin label flexibility and residual uncertainties in secondary structure definitions. To advance the understanding of protein-micelle interactions, the present study concludes by showing that, in marked contrast to secondary structure stability, helix dynamics of SLAS-bound alphaS correlate with the degree of protein-induced departures from free micelle dimensions.
A combinatorial NMR and EPR approach for evaluating the structural ensemble of partially folded proteins.,Rao JN, Jao CC, Hegde BG, Langen R, Ulmer TS J Am Chem Soc. 2010 Jun 30;132(25):8657-68. PMID:20524659
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.