PARTIALLY DEGLYCOSYLATED GLUCOCERAMIDASE
[GLCM_HUMAN] Defects in GBA are the cause of Gaucher disease (GD) [MIM:230800]; also known as glucocerebrosidase deficiency. GD is the most prevalent lysosomal storage disease, characterized by accumulation of glucosylceramide in the reticulo-endothelial system. Different clinical forms are recognized depending on the presence (neuronopathic forms) or absence of central nervous system involvement, severity and age of onset. [:]                                              Defects in GBA are the cause of Gaucher disease type 1 (GD1) [MIM:230800]; also known as adult non-neuronopathic Gaucher disease. GD1 is characterized by hepatosplenomegaly with consequent anemia and thrombopenia, and bone involvement. The central nervous system is not involved.[:]          Defects in GBA are the cause of Gaucher disease type 2 (GD2) [MIM:230900]; also known as acute neuronopathic Gaucher disease. GD2 is the most severe form and is universally progressive and fatal. It manifests soon after birth, with death generally occurring before patients reach two years of age.        Defects in GBA are the cause of Gaucher disease type 3 (GD3) [MIM:231000]; also known as subacute neuronopathic Gaucher disease. GD3 has central nervous manifestations.       Defects in GBA are the cause of Gaucher disease type 3C (GD3C) [MIM:231005]; also known as pseudo-Gaucher disease or Gaucher-like disease.      Defects in GBA are the cause of Gaucher disease perinatal lethal (GDPL) [MIM:608013]. It is a distinct form of Gaucher disease type 2, characterized by fetal onset. Hydrops fetalis, in utero fetal death and neonatal distress are prominent features. When hydrops is absent, neurologic involvement begins in the first week and leads to death within 3 months. Hepatosplenomegaly is a major sign, and is associated with ichthyosis, arthrogryposis, and facial dysmorphism.      Note=Perinatal lethal Gaucher disease is associated with non-immune hydrops fetalis, a generalized edema of the fetus with fluid accumulation in the body cavities due to non-immune causes. Non-immune hydrops fetalis is not a diagnosis in itself but a symptom, a feature of many genetic disorders, and the end-stage of a wide variety of disorders.      Defects in GBA contribute to susceptibility to Parkinson disease (PARK) [MIM:168600]. A complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by bradykinesia, resting tremor, muscular rigidity and postural instability. Additional features are characteristic postural abnormalities, dysautonomia, dystonic cramps, and dementia. The pathology of Parkinson disease involves the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the presence of Lewy bodies (intraneuronal accumulations of aggregated proteins), in surviving neurons in various areas of the brain. The disease is progressive and usually manifests after the age of 50 years, although early-onset cases (before 50 years) are known. The majority of the cases are sporadic suggesting a multifactorial etiology based on environmental and genetic factors. However, some patients present with a positive family history for the disease. Familial forms of the disease usually begin at earlier ages and are associated with atypical clinical features.     
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Gaucher disease is caused by mutations in the gene encoding acid-beta-glucosidase. A recombinant form of this enzyme, Cerezyme, is used to treat Gaucher disease patients by ;enzyme-replacement therapy'. Crystals of Cerezyme after its partial deglycosylation were obtained earlier and the structure was solved to 2.0 A resolution [Dvir et al. (2003), EMBO Rep. 4, 704-709]. The crystal structure of unmodified Cerezyme is now reported, in which a substantial number of sugar residues bound to three asparagines via N-glycosylation could be visualized. The structure of intact fully glycosylated Cerezyme is virtually identical to that of the partially deglycosylated enzyme. However, the three loops at the entrance to the active site, which were previously observed in alternative conformations, display additional variability in their structures. Comparison of the structure of acid-beta-glucosidase with that of xylanase, a bacterial enzyme from a closely related protein family, demonstrates a close correspondence between the active-site residues of the two enzymes.
Structural comparison of differently glycosylated forms of acid-beta-glucosidase, the defective enzyme in Gaucher disease.,Brumshtein B, Wormald MR, Silman I, Futerman AH, Sussman JL Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2006 Dec;62(Pt 12):1458-65. Epub 2006, Nov 23. PMID:17139081
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.