Crystal structure of the human carbonic anhydrase II in complex with the 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide inhibitor.
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The X-ray crystal structures of 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide (the acetazolamide precursor) and 5-(4-amino-3-chloro-5-fluorophenylsulfonamido)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfona mide in complex with the human isozyme II of carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 22.214.171.124) are reported. The thiadiazole-sulfonamide moiety of the two compounds binds in the canonic manner to the zinc ion and interacts with Thr199, Glu106, and Thr200. The substituted phenyl tail of the second inhibitor was positioned in the hydrophobic part of the binding pocket, at van der Waals distance from Phe131, Val 135, Val141, Leu198, Pro202, and Leu204. These structures may help in the design of better inhibitors of these widespread zinc-containing enzymes.
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: X-ray crystallographic studies for the binding of 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide and 5-(4-amino-3-chloro-5-fluorophenylsulfonamido)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfona mide to human isoform II.,Menchise V, De Simone G, Di Fiore A, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2006 Dec 15;16(24):6204-8. Epub 2006 Sep 26. PMID:17000110
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.