[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.
N-(4-Sulfamoylphenyl)-alpha-d-glucopyranosylamine, a promising topical antiglaucoma agent, is a potent inhibitor of the zinc enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 188.8.131.52). The high resolution X-ray crystal structure of its adduct with the target isoform involved in glaucoma, CA II, is reported here. The sugar sulfanilamide derivative binds to the enzyme in a totally new manner as compared to other CA-inhibitor adducts investigated earlier. The sulfonamide anchor was coordinated to the active site metal ion, and the phenylene ring of the inhibitor filled the channel leading to the active site cavity. The glycosyl moiety responsible for the high water solubility of the compound was oriented towards a hydrophilic region of the active site, where no other inhibitors were observed to be bound up to now. A network of seven hydrogen bonds with four water molecules and the amino acid residues Pro201, Pro202 and Gln92 further stabilize the enzyme-inhibitor adduct. Topiramate, another sugar-based CA inhibitor, binds in a completely different manner to CA II as compared to the sulfonamide investigated here. These findings are useful for the design of potent, sugar-derived enzyme inhibitors.
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: binding of an antiglaucoma glycosyl-sulfanilamide derivative to human isoform II and its consequences for the drug design of enzyme inhibitors incorporating sugar moieties.,Di Fiore A, Scozzafava A, Winum JY, Montero JL, Pedone C, Supuran CT, De Simone G Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007 Mar 15;17(6):1726-31. Epub 2007 Jan 8. PMID:17251017
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Venta PJ, Welty RJ, Johnson TM, Sly WS, Tashian RE. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Belgian family is caused by a point mutation at an invariant histidine residue (107 His----Tyr): complete structure of the normal human CA II gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Nov;49(5):1082-90. PMID:1928091
↑ Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS. Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1804-8. PMID:1542674
↑ Soda H, Yukizane S, Yoshida I, Koga Y, Aramaki S, Kato H. A point mutation in exon 3 (His 107-->Tyr) in two unrelated Japanese patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency with central nervous system involvement. Hum Genet. 1996 Apr;97(4):435-7. PMID:8834238
↑ Shah GN, Bonapace G, Hu PY, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and brain calcification): novel mutations in CA2 identified by direct sequencing expand the opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation. Hum Mutat. 2004 Sep;24(3):272. PMID:15300855 doi:10.1002/humu.9266
↑ Briganti F, Mangani S, Scozzafava A, Vernaglione G, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 Oct;4(5):528-36. PMID:10550681
↑ Kim CY, Whittington DA, Chang JS, Liao J, May JA, Christianson DW. Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. J Med Chem. 2002 Feb 14;45(4):888-93. PMID:11831900
↑ Di Fiore A, Scozzafava A, Winum JY, Montero JL, Pedone C, Supuran CT, De Simone G. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: binding of an antiglaucoma glycosyl-sulfanilamide derivative to human isoform II and its consequences for the drug design of enzyme inhibitors incorporating sugar moieties. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007 Mar 15;17(6):1726-31. Epub 2007 Jan 8. PMID:17251017 doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2006.12.099