[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.
The activation of the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 188.8.131.52) with L-adrenaline and histamine has been investigated by kinetic and X-ray crystallographic studies. L-Adrenaline behaves as a potent activator of isozyme CA I (activation constant of 90 nM), being a much weaker activator of isozyme CA II (activation constant of 96 microM). Isoforms CA IV, VA, VII, and XIV were activated by L-adrenaline with K(A)s in the range of 36-63 microM. The X-ray crystal structure of the CA II-L-adrenaline adduct revealed that the activator plugs the entrance of the active site cavity, obstructing it almost completely.
Carbonic anhydrase activators: L-Adrenaline plugs the active site entrance of isozyme II, activating better isoforms I, IV, VA, VII, and XIV.,Temperini C, Innocenti A, Scozzafava A, Mastrolorenzo A, Supuran CT Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007 Feb 1;17(3):628-35. Epub 2006 Nov 15. PMID:17127057
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Venta PJ, Welty RJ, Johnson TM, Sly WS, Tashian RE. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Belgian family is caused by a point mutation at an invariant histidine residue (107 His----Tyr): complete structure of the normal human CA II gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Nov;49(5):1082-90. PMID:1928091
↑ Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS. Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1804-8. PMID:1542674
↑ Soda H, Yukizane S, Yoshida I, Koga Y, Aramaki S, Kato H. A point mutation in exon 3 (His 107-->Tyr) in two unrelated Japanese patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency with central nervous system involvement. Hum Genet. 1996 Apr;97(4):435-7. PMID:8834238
↑ Shah GN, Bonapace G, Hu PY, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and brain calcification): novel mutations in CA2 identified by direct sequencing expand the opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation. Hum Mutat. 2004 Sep;24(3):272. PMID:15300855 doi:10.1002/humu.9266
↑ Briganti F, Mangani S, Scozzafava A, Vernaglione G, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 Oct;4(5):528-36. PMID:10550681
↑ Kim CY, Whittington DA, Chang JS, Liao J, May JA, Christianson DW. Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. J Med Chem. 2002 Feb 14;45(4):888-93. PMID:11831900
↑ Temperini C, Innocenti A, Scozzafava A, Mastrolorenzo A, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase activators: L-Adrenaline plugs the active site entrance of isozyme II, activating better isoforms I, IV, VA, VII, and XIV. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007 Feb 1;17(3):628-35. Epub 2006 Nov 15. PMID:17127057 doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2006.11.027