THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF HUMAN DEOXYHAEMOGLOBIN AT 1.74 ANGSTROMS RESOLUTION
[HBA_HUMAN] Defects in HBA1 may be a cause of Heinz body anemias (HEIBAN) [MIM:140700]. This is a form of non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia of Dacie type 1. After splenectomy, which has little benefit, basophilic inclusions called Heinz bodies are demonstrable in the erythrocytes. Before splenectomy, diffuse or punctate basophilia may be evident. Most of these cases are probably instances of hemoglobinopathy. The hemoglobin demonstrates heat lability. Heinz bodies are observed also with the Ivemark syndrome (asplenia with cardiovascular anomalies) and with glutathione peroxidase deficiency. Defects in HBA1 are the cause of alpha-thalassemia (A-THAL) [MIM:604131]. The thalassemias are the most common monogenic diseases and occur mostly in Mediterranean and Southeast Asian populations. The hallmark of alpha-thalassemia is an imbalance in globin-chain production in the adult HbA molecule. The level of alpha chain production can range from none to very nearly normal levels. Deletion of both copies of each of the two alpha-globin genes causes alpha(0)-thalassemia, also known as homozygous alpha thalassemia. Due to the complete absence of alpha chains, the predominant fetal hemoglobin is a tetramer of gamma-chains (Bart hemoglobin) that has essentially no oxygen carrying capacity. This causes oxygen starvation in the fetal tissues leading to prenatal lethality or early neonatal death. The loss of three alpha genes results in high levels of a tetramer of four beta chains (hemoglobin H), causing a severe and life-threatening anemia known as hemoglobin H disease. Untreated, most patients die in childhood or early adolescence. The loss of two alpha genes results in mild alpha-thalassemia, also known as heterozygous alpha-thalassemia. Affected individuals have small red cells and a mild anemia (microcytosis). If three of the four alpha-globin genes are functional, individuals are completely asymptomatic. Some rare forms of alpha-thalassemia are due to point mutations (non-deletional alpha-thalassemia). The thalassemic phenotype is due to unstable globin alpha chains that are rapidly catabolized prior to formation of the alpha-beta heterotetramers. Note=Alpha(0)-thalassemia is associated with non-immune hydrops fetalis, a generalized edema of the fetus with fluid accumulation in the body cavities due to non-immune causes. Non-immune hydrops fetalis is not a diagnosis in itself but a symptom, a feature of many genetic disorders, and the end-stage of a wide variety of disorders. Defects in HBA1 are the cause of hemoglobin H disease (HBH) [MIM:613978]. HBH is a form of alpha-thalassemia due to the loss of three alpha genes. This results in high levels of a tetramer of four beta chains (hemoglobin H), causing a severe and life-threatening anemia. Untreated, most patients die in childhood or early adolescence. [HBB_HUMAN] Defects in HBB may be a cause of Heinz body anemias (HEIBAN) [MIM:140700]. This is a form of non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia of Dacie type 1. After splenectomy, which has little benefit, basophilic inclusions called Heinz bodies are demonstrable in the erythrocytes. Before splenectomy, diffuse or punctate basophilia may be evident. Most of these cases are probably instances of hemoglobinopathy. The hemoglobin demonstrates heat lability. Heinz bodies are observed also with the Ivemark syndrome (asplenia with cardiovascular anomalies) and with glutathione peroxidase deficiency.    Defects in HBB are the cause of beta-thalassemia (B-THAL) [MIM:613985]. A form of thalassemia. Thalassemias are common monogenic diseases occurring mostly in Mediterranean and Southeast Asian populations. The hallmark of beta-thalassemia is an imbalance in globin-chain production in the adult HbA molecule. Absence of beta chain causes beta(0)-thalassemia, while reduced amounts of detectable beta globin causes beta(+)-thalassemia. In the severe forms of beta-thalassemia, the excess alpha globin chains accumulate in the developing erythroid precursors in the marrow. Their deposition leads to a vast increase in erythroid apoptosis that in turn causes ineffective erythropoiesis and severe microcytic hypochromic anemia. Clinically, beta-thalassemia is divided into thalassemia major which is transfusion dependent, thalassemia intermedia (of intermediate severity), and thalassemia minor that is asymptomatic. Defects in HBB are the cause of sickle cell anemia (SKCA) [MIM:603903]; also known as sickle cell disease. Sickle cell anemia is characterized by abnormally shaped red cells resulting in chronic anemia and periodic episodes of pain, serious infections and damage to vital organs. Normal red blood cells are round and flexible and flow easily through blood vessels, but in sickle cell anemia, the abnormal hemoglobin (called Hb S) causes red blood cells to become stiff. They are C-shaped and resembles a sickle. These stiffer red blood cells can led to microvascular occlusion thus cutting off the blood supply to nearby tissues. Defects in HBB are the cause of beta-thalassemia dominant inclusion body type (B-THALIB) [MIM:603902]. An autosomal dominant form of beta thalassemia characterized by moderate anemia, lifelong jaundice, cholelithiasis and splenomegaly, marked morphologic changes in the red cells, erythroid hyperplasia of the bone marrow with increased numbers of multinucleate red cell precursors, and the presence of large inclusion bodies in the normoblasts, both in the marrow and in the peripheral blood after splenectomy.
[HBA_HUMAN] Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues. [HBB_HUMAN] Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues. LVV-hemorphin-7 potentiates the activity of bradykinin, causing a decrease in blood pressure.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The structure of human deoxyhaemoglobin was refined at 1.74 A resolution using data collected on film at room temperature from a synchrotron X-ray source. The crystallographic R-factor is 16.0%. The estimated error in atomic positions is 0.1 A overall, 0.14 A for main-chain atoms of internal segments, and 0.05 A for the iron atoms. The effects of intermolecular contacts on the structure were investigated; such contacts cause only highly localized distortions, as judged from the degree of molecular asymmetry that they induce. The geometry of the iron-nitrogen complex closely resembles that of the deoxymyoglobin structure of Takano (1977) and of the 5-co-ordinated model compounds of Hoard (1975) and Jameson et al. (1980). The distance of the iron from the mean plane of N(porphyrin) is 0.40(5) A and 0.36(5) A, respectively, at the alpha and beta haems, in contrast to the corresponding distance of +0.12(8) A and -0.11(8) A in oxyhaemoglobin ( Shaanan , 1983); the Fe-N epsilon (F8) bond length is 2.12(4) A and the Fe-N(porphyrin) bond length is 2.06(2) A; the last is also in good agreement with extended X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy measurements on deoxyhaemoglobin ( Eisenberger et al., 1978; Perutz et al., 1982). The haems are domed toward the proximal side; the separation between the mean planes of N(porphyrin) and C(porphyrin) being 0.16(6) A and 0.10(6) A, respectively at the alpha and beta haems. At the alpha haems, the normals to the mean pyrrole planes are tilted uniformly toward the haem centre, by about three degrees relative to the haem normal, and there is a folding of about four degrees of the haem about an axis running between the methene carbons that are between the pyrrole rings bearing like-type side-chains. At the beta haems, there is no such folding, and only pyrroles II and IV (those eclipsed by His F8) are appreciably tilted, by about eight degrees. The independence of these parameters from restraints imposed on the model was verified by unrestrained refinement of the entire molecule starting from a structure with modified haem geometry.
The crystal structure of human deoxyhaemoglobin at 1.74 A resolution.,Fermi G, Perutz MF, Shaanan B, Fourme R J Mol Biol. 1984 May 15;175(2):159-74. PMID:6726807
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.