[RASH_HUMAN] Defects in HRAS are the cause of faciocutaneoskeletal syndrome (FCSS) [MIM:218040]. A rare condition characterized by prenatally increased growth, postnatal growth deficiency, mental retardation, distinctive facial appearance, cardiovascular abnormalities (typically pulmonic stenosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and/or atrial tachycardia), tumor predisposition, skin and musculoskeletal abnormalities. Defects in HRAS are the cause of congenital myopathy with excess of muscle spindles (CMEMS) [MIM:218040]. CMEMS is a variant of Costello syndrome. Defects in HRAS may be a cause of susceptibility to Hurthle cell thyroid carcinoma (HCTC) [MIM:607464]. Hurthle cell thyroid carcinoma accounts for approximately 3% of all thyroid cancers. Although they are classified as variants of follicular neoplasms, they are more often multifocal and somewhat more aggressive and are less likely to take up iodine than are other follicular neoplasms. Note=Mutations which change positions 12, 13 or 61 activate the potential of HRAS to transform cultured cells and are implicated in a variety of human tumors. Defects in HRAS are a cause of susceptibility to bladder cancer (BLC) [MIM:109800]. A malignancy originating in tissues of the urinary bladder. It often presents with multiple tumors appearing at different times and at different sites in the bladder. Most bladder cancers are transitional cell carcinomas. They begin in cells that normally make up the inner lining of the bladder. Other types of bladder cancer include squamous cell carcinoma (cancer that begins in thin, flat cells) and adenocarcinoma (cancer that begins in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids). Bladder cancer is a complex disorder with both genetic and environmental influences. Note=Defects in HRAS are the cause of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Defects in HRAS are the cause of Schimmelpenning-Feuerstein-Mims syndrome (SFM) [MIM:163200]. A disease characterized by sebaceous nevi, often on the face, associated with variable ipsilateral abnormalities of the central nervous system, ocular anomalies, and skeletal defects. Many oral manifestations have been reported, not only including hypoplastic and malformed teeth, and mucosal papillomatosis, but also ankyloglossia, hemihyperplastic tongue, intraoral nevus, giant cell granuloma, ameloblastoma, bone cysts, follicular cysts, oligodontia, and odontodysplasia. Sebaceous nevi follow the lines of Blaschko and these can continue as linear intraoral lesions, as in mucosal papillomatosis.
We present a new design for a fluorescence microspectrophotometer for use in kinetic crystallography in combination with x-ray diffraction experiments. The FLUMIX device (Fluorescence spectroscopy to monitor intermediates in x-ray crystallography) is built for 0 degrees fluorescence detection, which has several advantages in comparison to a conventional fluorometer with 90 degrees design. Due to the reduced spatial requirements and the need for only one objective, the system is highly versatile, easy to handle, and can be used for many different applications. In combination with a conventional stereomicroscope, fluorescence measurements or reaction initiation can be performed directly in a hanging drop crystallization setup. The FLUMIX device can be combined with most x-ray sources, normally without the need of a specialized mechanical support. As a biological model system, we have used H-Ras p21 with an artificially introduced photo-labile GTP precursor (caged GTP) and a covalently attached fluorophore (IANBD amide). Using the FLUMIX system, detailed information about the state of photolyzed crystals of the modified H-Ras p21 (p21(mod)) could be obtained. Measurements in combination with a synchrotron beamline showed significant fluorescence changes in p21(mod) crystals even within a few seconds of x-ray exposure at 100 K.
A newly designed microspectrofluorometer for kinetic studies on protein crystals in combination with x-ray diffraction.,Klink BU, Goody RS, Scheidig AJ Biophys J. 2006 Aug 1;91(3):981-92. Epub 2006 May 12. PMID:16698776
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↑ Gripp KW, Innes AM, Axelrad ME, Gillan TL, Parboosingh JS, Davies C, Leonard NJ, Lapointe M, Doyle D, Catalano S, Nicholson L, Stabley DL, Sol-Church K. Costello syndrome associated with novel germline HRAS mutations: an attenuated phenotype? Am J Med Genet A. 2008 Mar 15;146A(6):683-90. PMID:18247425 doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.32227
↑ Lo IF, Brewer C, Shannon N, Shorto J, Tang B, Black G, Soo MT, Ng DK, Lam ST, Kerr B. Severe neonatal manifestations of Costello syndrome. J Med Genet. 2008 Mar;45(3):167-71. Epub 2007 Nov 26. PMID:18039947 doi:10.1136/jmg.2007.054411
↑ Gremer L, De Luca A, Merbitz-Zahradnik T, Dallapiccola B, Morlot S, Tartaglia M, Kutsche K, Ahmadian MR, Rosenberger G. Duplication of Glu37 in the switch I region of HRAS impairs effector/GAP binding and underlies Costello syndrome by promoting enhanced growth factor-dependent MAPK and AKT activation. Hum Mol Genet. 2010 Mar 1;19(5):790-802. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddp548. Epub 2009 Dec, 8. PMID:19995790 doi:10.1093/hmg/ddp548
↑ van der Burgt I, Kupsky W, Stassou S, Nadroo A, Barroso C, Diem A, Kratz CP, Dvorsky R, Ahmadian MR, Zenker M. Myopathy caused by HRAS germline mutations: implications for disturbed myogenic differentiation in the presence of constitutive HRas activation. J Med Genet. 2007 Jul;44(7):459-62. Epub 2007 Apr 5. PMID:17412879 doi:jmg.2007.049270
↑ Sakai E, Rikimaru K, Ueda M, Matsumoto Y, Ishii N, Enomoto S, Yamamoto H, Tsuchida N. The p53 tumor-suppressor gene and ras oncogene mutations in oral squamous-cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 1992 Dec 2;52(6):867-72. PMID:1459726
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↑ Guil S, de La Iglesia N, Fernandez-Larrea J, Cifuentes D, Ferrer JC, Guinovart JJ, Bach-Elias M. Alternative splicing of the human proto-oncogene c-H-ras renders a new Ras family protein that trafficks to cytoplasm and nucleus. Cancer Res. 2003 Sep 1;63(17):5178-87. PMID:14500341
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↑ Williams JG, Pappu K, Campbell SL. Structural and biochemical studies of p21Ras S-nitrosylation and nitric oxide-mediated guanine nucleotide exchange. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 May 27;100(11):6376-81. Epub 2003 May 9. PMID:12740440 doi:10.1073/pnas.1037299100
↑ Klink BU, Goody RS, Scheidig AJ. A newly designed microspectrofluorometer for kinetic studies on protein crystals in combination with x-ray diffraction. Biophys J. 2006 Aug 1;91(3):981-92. Epub 2006 May 12. PMID:16698776 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1529/biophysj.105.078931