[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.
In order to obtain a better structural framework for understanding the catalytic mechanism of carbonic anhydrase, a number of inhibitor complexes of the enzyme were investigated crystallographically. The three-dimensional structure of free human carbonic anhydrase II was refined at pH 7.8 (1.54 A resolution) and at pH 6.0 (1.67 A resolution). The structure around the zinc ion was identical at both pH values. The structure of the zinc-free enzyme was virtually identical with that of the native enzyme, apart from a water molecule that had moved 0.9 A to fill the space that would be occupied by the zinc ion. The complexes with the anionic inhibitors bisulfite and formate were also studied at neutral pH. Bisulfite binds with one of its oxygen atoms, presumably protonized, to the zinc ion and replaces the zinc water. Formate, lacking a hydroxyl group, is bound with its oxygen atoms not far away from the position of the non-protonized oxygen atoms of the bisulfite complex, i.e. at hydrogen bond distance from Thr199 N and at a position between the zinc ion and the hydrophobic part of the active site. The result of these and other studies have implications for our view of the catalytic function of the enzyme, since virtually all inhibitors share some features with substrate, product or expected transition states. A reaction scheme where electrophilic activation of carbon dioxide plays an important role in the hydration reaction is presented. In the reverse direction, the protonized oxygen of the bicarbonate is forced upon the zinc ion, thereby facilitating cleavage of the carbon-oxygen bond. This is achieved by the combined action of the anionic binding site, which binds carboxyl groups, the side-chain of threonine 199, which discriminates between hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, and hydrophobic interaction between substrate and the active site cavity. The required proton transfer between the zinc water and His64 can take place through water molecules 292 and 318.
Structure of native and apo carbonic anhydrase II and structure of some of its anion-ligand complexes.,Hakansson K, Carlsson M, Svensson LA, Liljas A J Mol Biol. 1992 Oct 20;227(4):1192-204. PMID:1433293
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Venta PJ, Welty RJ, Johnson TM, Sly WS, Tashian RE. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Belgian family is caused by a point mutation at an invariant histidine residue (107 His----Tyr): complete structure of the normal human CA II gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Nov;49(5):1082-90. PMID:1928091
↑ Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS. Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1804-8. PMID:1542674
↑ Soda H, Yukizane S, Yoshida I, Koga Y, Aramaki S, Kato H. A point mutation in exon 3 (His 107-->Tyr) in two unrelated Japanese patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency with central nervous system involvement. Hum Genet. 1996 Apr;97(4):435-7. PMID:8834238
↑ Shah GN, Bonapace G, Hu PY, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and brain calcification): novel mutations in CA2 identified by direct sequencing expand the opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation. Hum Mutat. 2004 Sep;24(3):272. PMID:15300855 doi:10.1002/humu.9266
↑ Briganti F, Mangani S, Scozzafava A, Vernaglione G, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 Oct;4(5):528-36. PMID:10550681
↑ Kim CY, Whittington DA, Chang JS, Liao J, May JA, Christianson DW. Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. J Med Chem. 2002 Feb 14;45(4):888-93. PMID:11831900
↑ Hakansson K, Carlsson M, Svensson LA, Liljas A. Structure of native and apo carbonic anhydrase II and structure of some of its anion-ligand complexes. J Mol Biol. 1992 Oct 20;227(4):1192-204. PMID:1433293