Crystal Structure of the GTP-bound form of RasQ61G
[RASH_HUMAN] Defects in HRAS are the cause of faciocutaneoskeletal syndrome (FCSS) [MIM:218040]. A rare condition characterized by prenatally increased growth, postnatal growth deficiency, mental retardation, distinctive facial appearance, cardiovascular abnormalities (typically pulmonic stenosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and/or atrial tachycardia), tumor predisposition, skin and musculoskeletal abnormalities.       Defects in HRAS are the cause of congenital myopathy with excess of muscle spindles (CMEMS) [MIM:218040]. CMEMS is a variant of Costello syndrome. Defects in HRAS may be a cause of susceptibility to Hurthle cell thyroid carcinoma (HCTC) [MIM:607464]. Hurthle cell thyroid carcinoma accounts for approximately 3% of all thyroid cancers. Although they are classified as variants of follicular neoplasms, they are more often multifocal and somewhat more aggressive and are less likely to take up iodine than are other follicular neoplasms. Note=Mutations which change positions 12, 13 or 61 activate the potential of HRAS to transform cultured cells and are implicated in a variety of human tumors. Defects in HRAS are a cause of susceptibility to bladder cancer (BLC) [MIM:109800]. A malignancy originating in tissues of the urinary bladder. It often presents with multiple tumors appearing at different times and at different sites in the bladder. Most bladder cancers are transitional cell carcinomas. They begin in cells that normally make up the inner lining of the bladder. Other types of bladder cancer include squamous cell carcinoma (cancer that begins in thin, flat cells) and adenocarcinoma (cancer that begins in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids). Bladder cancer is a complex disorder with both genetic and environmental influences. Note=Defects in HRAS are the cause of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Defects in HRAS are the cause of Schimmelpenning-Feuerstein-Mims syndrome (SFM) [MIM:163200]. A disease characterized by sebaceous nevi, often on the face, associated with variable ipsilateral abnormalities of the central nervous system, ocular anomalies, and skeletal defects. Many oral manifestations have been reported, not only including hypoplastic and malformed teeth, and mucosal papillomatosis, but also ankyloglossia, hemihyperplastic tongue, intraoral nevus, giant cell granuloma, ameloblastoma, bone cysts, follicular cysts, oligodontia, and odontodysplasia. Sebaceous nevi follow the lines of Blaschko and these can continue as linear intraoral lesions, as in mucosal papillomatosis.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The flexibility of the conserved 57DTAGQ61 motif is essential for Ras proper cycling in response to growth factors. Here, we increase the flexibility of the 57DTAGQ61 motif by mutating Gln61 to Gly. The crystal structure of the RasQ61G mutant reveals a new conformation of switch 2 that bears remarkable structural homology to an intermediate for GTP hydrolysis revealed by targeted molecular dynamics simulations. The mutation increased retention of GTP and inhibited Ras binding to the catalytic site, but not to the distal site of Sos. Most importantly, the thermodynamics of RafRBD binding to Ras are altered even though the structure of switch 1 is not affected by the mutation. Our results suggest that interplay and transmission of structural information between the switch regions are important factors for Ras function. They propose that initiation of GTP hydrolysis sets off the separation of the Ras/effector complex even before the GDP conformation is reached.
Structure of a transient intermediate for GTP hydrolysis by ras.,Ford B, Hornak V, Kleinman H, Nassar N Structure. 2006 Mar;14(3):427-36. PMID:16531227
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.