[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.
Human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) has a histidine at position 64 (His64) that donates a proton to the zinc-bound hydroxide in catalysis of the dehydration of bicarbonate. To examine the effect of the histidine location on proton shuttling, His64 was replaced with Ala and Thr200 replaced with histidine (H64A-T200H HCAII), effectively relocating the proton shuttle residue 2 A closer to the zinc-bound hydroxide compared to wild type HCA II. The crystal structure of H64A-T200H HCA II at 1.8 A resolution shows the side chain of His200 directly hydrogen-bonded with the zinc-bound solvent. Different proton transfer processes were observed at pH 6 and at pH 8 during the catalytic hydration-dehydration cycle, measured by mass spectrometry as the depletion of 18O from C18O2 by H64A-T200H HCA II. The process at pH 6.0 is attributed to proton transfer between the side chain of His200 and the zinc-bound hydroxide, in analogy with proton transfer involving His64 in wild-type HCA II. At pH 8.0 it is attributed to proton transfer between bicarbonate and the zinc-bound hydroxide, as supported by the dependence of the rate of proton transfer on bicarbonate concentration and on solvent hydrogen isotope effects. This study establishes that a histidine directly hydrogen-bonded to the zinc-bound hydroxide, can adopt the correct distance geometry to support proton transfer
Proton transfer in a Thr200His mutant of human carbonic anhydrase II.,Bhatt D, Tu C, Fisher SZ, Hernandez Prada JA, McKenna R, Silverman DN Proteins. 2005 Nov 1;61(2):239-45. PMID:16106378
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Venta PJ, Welty RJ, Johnson TM, Sly WS, Tashian RE. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Belgian family is caused by a point mutation at an invariant histidine residue (107 His----Tyr): complete structure of the normal human CA II gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Nov;49(5):1082-90. PMID:1928091
↑ Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS. Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1804-8. PMID:1542674
↑ Soda H, Yukizane S, Yoshida I, Koga Y, Aramaki S, Kato H. A point mutation in exon 3 (His 107-->Tyr) in two unrelated Japanese patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency with central nervous system involvement. Hum Genet. 1996 Apr;97(4):435-7. PMID:8834238
↑ Shah GN, Bonapace G, Hu PY, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and brain calcification): novel mutations in CA2 identified by direct sequencing expand the opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation. Hum Mutat. 2004 Sep;24(3):272. PMID:15300855 doi:10.1002/humu.9266
↑ Briganti F, Mangani S, Scozzafava A, Vernaglione G, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 Oct;4(5):528-36. PMID:10550681
↑ Kim CY, Whittington DA, Chang JS, Liao J, May JA, Christianson DW. Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. J Med Chem. 2002 Feb 14;45(4):888-93. PMID:11831900
↑ Bhatt D, Tu C, Fisher SZ, Hernandez Prada JA, McKenna R, Silverman DN. Proton transfer in a Thr200His mutant of human carbonic anhydrase II. Proteins. 2005 Nov 1;61(2):239-45. PMID:16106378 doi:10.1002/prot.20615