[SYUA_HUMAN] Note=Genetic alterations of SNCA resulting in aberrant polymerization into fibrils, are associated with several neurodegenerative diseases (synucleinopathies). SNCA fibrillar aggregates represent the major non A-beta component of Alzheimer disease amyloid plaque, and a major component of Lewy body inclusions. They are also found within Lewy body (LB)-like intraneuronal inclusions, glial inclusions and axonal spheroids in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type 1. Defects in SNCA are the cause of Parkinson disease type 1 (PARK1) [MIM:168601]. A complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by bradykinesia, resting tremor, muscular rigidity and postural instability. Additional features are characteristic postural abnormalities, dysautonomia, dystonic cramps, and dementia. The pathology of Parkinson disease involves the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the presence of Lewy bodies (intraneuronal accumulations of aggregated proteins), in surviving neurons in various areas of the brain. The disease is progressive and usually manifests after the age of 50 years, although early-onset cases (before 50 years) are known. The majority of the cases are sporadic suggesting a multifactorial etiology based on environmental and genetic factors. However, some patients present with a positive family history for the disease. Familial forms of the disease usually begin at earlier ages and are associated with atypical clinical features. Defects in SNCA are the cause of Parkinson disease type 4 (PARK4) [MIM:605543]. A complex neurodegenerative disorder with manifestations ranging from typical Parkinson disease to dementia with Lewy bodies. Clinical features include parkinsonian symptoms (tremor, rigidity, postural instability and bradykinesia), dementia, diffuse Lewy body pathology, autonomic dysfunction, hallucinations and paranoia. Defects in SNCA are the cause of dementia Lewy body (DLB) [MIM:127750]. A neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by mental impairment leading to dementia, parkinsonism, often with fluctuating cognitive function, visual hallucinations, falls, syncopal episodes, and sensitivity to neuroleptic medication. Brainstem or cortical intraneuronal accumulations of aggregated proteins (Lewy bodies) are the only essential pathologic features. Patients may also have hippocampal and neocortical senile plaques, sometimes in sufficient number to fulfill the diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer disease.
[SYUA_HUMAN] May be involved in the regulation of dopamine release and transport. Induces fibrillization of microtubule-associated protein tau. Reduces neuronal responsiveness to various apoptotic stimuli, leading to a decreased caspase-3 activation.
Misfolding of the protein alpha-synuclein (aS), which associates with presynaptic vesicles, has been implicated in the molecular chain of events leading to Parkinson's disease. Here, the structure and dynamics of micelle-bound aS are reported. Val3-Val37 and Lys45-Thr92 form curved alpha-helices, connected by a well ordered, extended linker in an unexpected anti-parallel arrangement, followed by another short extended region (Gly93-Lys97), overlapping the recently identified chaperone-mediated autophagy recognition motif and a highly mobile tail (Asp98-Ala140). Helix curvature is significantly less than predicted based on the native micelle shape, indicating a deformation of the micelle by aS. Structural and dynamic parameters show a reduced helical content for Ala30-Val37. A dynamic variation in interhelical distance on the microsecond timescale is complemented by enhanced sub-nanosecond timescale dynamics, particularly in the remarkably glycine-rich segments of the helices. These unusually rich dynamics may serve to mitigate the effect of aS binding on membrane fluidity. The well ordered conformation of the helix-helix connector indicates a defined interaction with lipidic surfaces, suggesting that, when bound to larger diameter synaptic vesicles, it can act as a switch between this structure and a previously proposed uninterrupted helix.
Structure and dynamics of micelle-bound human alpha-synuclein.,Ulmer TS, Bax A, Cole NB, Nussbaum RL J Biol Chem. 2005 Mar 11;280(10):9595-603. Epub 2004 Dec 22. PMID:15615727
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
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↑ Kruger R, Kuhn W, Muller T, Woitalla D, Graeber M, Kosel S, Przuntek H, Epplen JT, Schols L, Riess O. Ala30Pro mutation in the gene encoding alpha-synuclein in Parkinson's disease. Nat Genet. 1998 Feb;18(2):106-8. PMID:9462735 doi:10.1038/ng0298-106
↑ Zarranz JJ, Alegre J, Gomez-Esteban JC, Lezcano E, Ros R, Ampuero I, Vidal L, Hoenicka J, Rodriguez O, Atares B, Llorens V, Gomez Tortosa E, del Ser T, Munoz DG, de Yebenes JG. The new mutation, E46K, of alpha-synuclein causes Parkinson and Lewy body dementia. Ann Neurol. 2004 Feb;55(2):164-73. PMID:14755719 doi:10.1002/ana.10795
↑ Ulmer TS, Bax A, Cole NB, Nussbaum RL. Structure and dynamics of micelle-bound human alpha-synuclein. J Biol Chem. 2005 Mar 11;280(10):9595-603. Epub 2004 Dec 22. PMID:15615727 doi:10.1074/jbc.M411805200