Structure of human carbonic anhydrase II with 4-[(3-bromo-4-O-sulfamoylbenzyl)(4-cyanophenyl)amino]-4H-[1,2,4]-triazole
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Carbonic anhydrase (CA) catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to hydrogen carbonate. The role of CA in maintaining pH balance has made it an attractive drug target for the treatment of cancer, and it has recently been implicated in the delivery of sulfamate-containing drugs. With the acceptance of steroid sulfatase as a target for hormone-dependent cancer, novel dual aromatase-steroid sulfatase inhibitors (DASIs) containing a sulfamate group are now being developed. In this study, we show that CA II is potently inhibited by several members of this class of inhibitor. The structures of CA II complexed with 4-[(4-O-sulfamoylbenzyl)(4-cyanophenyl)amino]-4H-[1,2,4]triazole (K(D) = 84 +/- 5 nM) and 4-[(3-bromo-4-O-sulfamoylbenzyl)(4-cyanophenyl)amino]-4H-[1,2,4]triazole (K(D) = 454 +/- 29 nM) are reported to 2.02 and 1.76 A, respectively. Both inhibitors ligate to the active site zinc(II) atom via their sulfamate nitrogen, while the rest of the molecule is contained within the hydrophobic binding pocket. Key protein residues include Val-121, Phe-131, Val-135, Val-143, Leu-141, Leu-198, Pro-202, and Leu-204. Despite being structurally similar, the two ligands experience different types of binding particularly in the sulfamate-containing aromatic ring and the opposite geometric arrangement of the triazole and cyanophenyl groups around the configurationally invertible central nitrogen atom. Small changes in inhibitor structure can cause large changes in binding to CA II, and this underlines the importance of structure-based drug design with this enzyme and other isoforms relevant to potential anticancer therapy. Moreover, these results underpin the idea that binding to erythrocyte CA II may be a general method of stabilizing and delivering sulfamate-based drugs in vivo.
First crystal structures of human carbonic anhydrase II in complex with dual aromatase-steroid sulfatase inhibitors.,Lloyd MD, Thiyagarajan N, Ho YT, Woo LW, Sutcliffe OB, Purohit A, Reed MJ, Acharya KR, Potter BV Biochemistry. 2005 May 10;44(18):6858-66. PMID:15865431
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.