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|1xoq, resolution 1.83Å ()|
|Ligands:||, , ,|
|Gene:||PDE4D (Homo sapiens)|
|Related:||1xlx, 1xlz, 1xm4, 1xm6, 1xmu, 1xmy, 1xn0, 1xom, 1xon, 1xor, 1xos, 1xot, 1xoz, 1xp0|
Catalytic Domain Of Human Phosphodiesterase 4D In Complex With Roflumilast
Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) comprise a large family of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cAMP or cGMP and are implicated in various diseases. We describe the high-resolution crystal structures of the catalytic domains of PDE4B, PDE4D, and PDE5A with ten different inhibitors, including the drug candidates cilomilast and roflumilast, for respiratory diseases. These cocrystal structures reveal a common scheme of inhibitor binding to the PDEs: (i) a hydrophobic clamp formed by highly conserved hydrophobic residues that sandwich the inhibitor in the active site; (ii) hydrogen bonding to an invariant glutamine that controls the orientation of inhibitor binding. A scaffold can be readily identified for any given inhibitor based on the formation of these two types of conserved interactions. These structural insights will enable the design of isoform-selective inhibitors with improved binding affinity and should facilitate the discovery of more potent and selective PDE inhibitors for the treatment of a variety of diseases.
Structural basis for the activity of drugs that inhibit phosphodiesterases., Card GL, England BP, Suzuki Y, Fong D, Powell B, Lee B, Luu C, Tabrizizad M, Gillette S, Ibrahim PN, Artis DR, Bollag G, Milburn MV, Kim SH, Schlessinger J, Zhang KY, Structure. 2004 Dec;12(12):2233-47. PMID:15576036
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
[PDE4D_HUMAN] Note=Genetic variations in PDE4D might be associated with susceptibility to stroke. PubMed:17006457 states that association with stroke has to be considered with caution. Defects in PDE4D are the cause of acrodysostosis type 2, with or without hormone resistance (ACRDYS2) [MIM:614613]. ACRDYS2 is a pleiotropic disorder characterized by skeletal, endocrine, and neurological abnormalities. Skeletal features include brachycephaly, midface hypoplasia with a small upturned nose, brachydactyly, and lumbar spinal stenosis. Endocrine abnormalities include hypothyroidism and hypogonadism in males and irregular menses in females. Developmental disability is a common finding but is variable in severity and can be associated with significant behavioral problems.
About this Structure
- Card GL, England BP, Suzuki Y, Fong D, Powell B, Lee B, Luu C, Tabrizizad M, Gillette S, Ibrahim PN, Artis DR, Bollag G, Milburn MV, Kim SH, Schlessinger J, Zhang KY. Structural basis for the activity of drugs that inhibit phosphodiesterases. Structure. 2004 Dec;12(12):2233-47. PMID:15576036 doi:10.1016/j.str.2004.10.004
- ↑ Michot C, Le Goff C, Goldenberg A, Abhyankar A, Klein C, Kinning E, Guerrot AM, Flahaut P, Duncombe A, Baujat G, Lyonnet S, Thalassinos C, Nitschke P, Casanova JL, Le Merrer M, Munnich A, Cormier-Daire V. Exome sequencing identifies PDE4D mutations as another cause of acrodysostosis. Am J Hum Genet. 2012 Apr 6;90(4):740-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.03.003. Epub, 2012 Mar 29. PMID:22464250 doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.03.003
- ↑ Zhang KY, Card GL, Suzuki Y, Artis DR, Fong D, Gillette S, Hsieh D, Neiman J, West BL, Zhang C, Milburn MV, Kim SH, Schlessinger J, Bollag G. A glutamine switch mechanism for nucleotide selectivity by phosphodiesterases. Mol Cell. 2004 Jul 23;15(2):279-86. PMID:15260978 doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2004.07.005
- ↑ Card GL, England BP, Suzuki Y, Fong D, Powell B, Lee B, Luu C, Tabrizizad M, Gillette S, Ibrahim PN, Artis DR, Bollag G, Milburn MV, Kim SH, Schlessinger J, Zhang KY. Structural basis for the activity of drugs that inhibit phosphodiesterases. Structure. 2004 Dec;12(12):2233-47. PMID:15576036 doi:10.1016/j.str.2004.10.004