Crystal structure of human endonuclease VIII-like 1 (NEIL1)
[NEIL1_HUMAN] Involved in base excision repair of DNA damaged by oxidation or by mutagenic agents. Acts as DNA glycosylase that recognizes and removes damaged bases. Has a preference for oxidized pyrimidines, such as thymine glycol, formamidopyrimidine (Fapy) and 5-hydroxyuracil. Has marginal activity towards 8-oxoguanine. Has AP (apurinic/apyrimidinic) lyase activity and introduces nicks in the DNA strand. Cleaves the DNA backbone by beta-delta elimination to generate a single-strand break at the site of the removed base with both 3'- and 5'-phosphates. Has DNA glycosylase/lyase activity towards mismatched uracil and thymine, in particular in U:C and T:C mismatches.   
Publication Abstract from PubMed
In prokaryotes, two DNA glycosylases recognize and excise oxidized pyrimidines: endonuclease III (Nth) and endonuclease VIII (Nei). The oxidized purine 8-oxoguanine, on the other hand, is recognized by Fpg (also known as MutM), a glycosylase that belongs to the same family as Nei. The recent availability of the human genome sequence allowed the identification of three human homologs of Escherichia coli Nei. We report here the crystal structure of a human Nei-like (NEIL) enzyme, NEIL1. The structure of NEIL1 exhibits the same overall fold as E. coli Nei, albeit with an unexpected twist. Sequence alignments had predicted that NEIL1 would lack a zinc finger, and it was therefore expected to use a different DNA-binding motif instead. Our structure revealed that, to the contrary, NEIL1 contains a structural motif composed of two antiparallel beta-strands that mimics the antiparallel beta-hairpin zinc finger found in other Fpg/Nei family members but lacks the loops that harbor the zinc-binding residues and, therefore, does not coordinate zinc. This "zincless finger" appears to be required for NEIL1 activity, because mutating a very highly conserved arginine within this motif greatly reduces the glycosylase activity of the enzyme.
The crystal structure of human endonuclease VIII-like 1 (NEIL1) reveals a zincless finger motif required for glycosylase activity.,Doublie S, Bandaru V, Bond JP, Wallace SS Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jul 13;101(28):10284-9. Epub 2004 Jul 1. PMID:15232006
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.