First time at Proteopedia? Click on the green links: they change the 3D image. Click and drag the molecules. Proteopedia is a 3D, interactive encyclopedia of proteins, RNA, DNA and other molecules. With a free user account, you can edit pages in Proteopedia. Visit the Main Page to learn more.

1sje

From Proteopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
1sje, resolution 2.45Å ()
Gene: HLA-DRA*0101 (Homo sapiens), HLA-DRB*0101 (Homo sapiens), SEC3 (Staphylococcus aureus)
Related: 1klu, 1pyw, 1sjh
Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Contents

HLA-DR1 complexed with a 16 residue HIV capsid peptide bound in a hairpin conformation

Publication Abstract from PubMed

T cells generally recognize peptide antigens bound to MHC proteins through contacts with residues found within or immediately flanking the seven- to nine-residue sequence accommodated in the MHC peptide-binding groove. However, some T cells require peptide residues outside this region for activation, the structural basis for which is unknown. Here, we have investigated a HIV Gag-specific T cell clone that requires an unusually long peptide antigen for activation. The crystal structure of a minimally antigenic 16-mer bound to HLA-DR1 shows that the peptide C-terminal region bends sharply into a hairpin turn as it exits the binding site, orienting peptide residues outside the MHC-binding region in position to interact with a T cell receptor. Peptide truncation and substitution studies show that both the hairpin turn and the extreme C-terminal residues are required for T cell activation. These results demonstrate a previously unrecognized mode of MHC-peptide-T cell receptor interaction.

A hairpin turn in a class II MHC-bound peptide orients residues outside the binding groove for T cell recognition., Zavala-Ruiz Z, Strug I, Walker BD, Norris PJ, Stern LJ, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Sep 7;101(36):13279-84. Epub 2004 Aug 26. PMID:15331779

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Disease

[2B11_HUMAN] Genetic variation in HLA-DRB1 is a cause of susceptibility to sarcoidosis type 1 (SS1) [MIM:181000]. Sarcoidosis is an idiopathic, systemic, inflammatory disease characterized by the formation of immune granulomas in involved organs. Granulomas predominantly invade the lungs and the lymphatic system, but also skin, liver, spleen, eyes and other organs may be involved.[1]

Function

[ENTC3_STAAU] Staphylococcal enterotoxins cause the intoxication staphylococcal food poisoning syndrome. The illness is characterized by high fever, hypotension, diarrhea, shock, and in some cases death. [DRA_HUMAN] Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells (APC) and presents them on the cell surface for recognition by the CD4 T-cells. The peptide binding cleft accommodates peptides of 10-30 residues. The peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are generated mostly by degradation of proteins that access the endocytic route, where they are processed by lysosomal proteases and other hydrolases. Exogenous antigens that have been endocytosed by the APC are thus readily available for presentation via MHC II molecules, and for this reason this antigen presentation pathway is usually referred to as exogenous. As membrane proteins on their way to degradation in lysosomes as part of their normal turn-over are also contained in the endosomal/lysosomal compartments, exogenous antigens must compete with those derived from endogenous components. Autophagy is also a source of endogenous peptides, autophagosomes constitutively fuse with MHC class II loading compartments. In addition to APCs, other cells of the gastrointestinal tract, such as epithelial cells, express MHC class II molecules and CD74 and act as APCs, which is an unusual trait of the GI tract. To produce a MHC class II molecule that presents an antigen, three MHC class II molecules (heterodimers of an alpha and a beta chain) associate with a CD74 trimer in the ER to form a heterononamer. Soon after the entry of this complex into the endosomal/lysosomal system where antigen processing occurs, CD74 undergoes a sequential degradation by various proteases, including CTSS and CTSL, leaving a small fragment termed CLIP (class-II-associated invariant chain peptide). The removal of CLIP is facilitated by HLA-DM via direct binding to the alpha-beta-CLIP complex so that CLIP is released. HLA-DM stabilizes MHC class II molecules until primary high affinity antigenic peptides are bound. The MHC II molecule bound to a peptide is then transported to the cell membrane surface. In B-cells, the interaction between HLA-DM and MHC class II molecules is regulated by HLA-DO. Primary dendritic cells (DCs) also to express HLA-DO. Lysosomal miroenvironment has been implicated in the regulation of antigen loading into MHC II molecules, increased acidification produces increased proteolysis and efficient peptide loading. [GAG_HV1Z2] Matrix protein p17 targets Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins to the plasma membrane via a multipartite membrane binding signal, that includes its myristoylated N-terminus. Also mediates nuclear localization of the preintegration complex. Implicated in the release from host cell mediated by Vpu. Capsid protein p24 forms the conical core of the virus that encapsulates the genomic RNA-nucleocapsid complex. Nucleocapsid protein p7 encapsulates and protects viral dimeric unspliced (genomic) RNA. Binds these RNAs through its zinc fingers. p6-gag plays a role in budding of the assembled particle by interacting with the host class E VPS proteins TSG101 and PDCD6IP/AIP1 (By similarity). [2B11_HUMAN] Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells (APC) and presents them on the cell surface for recognition by the CD4 T-cells. The peptide binding cleft accommodates peptides of 10-30 residues. The peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are generated mostly by degradation of proteins that access the endocytic route; where they are processed by lysosomal proteases and other hydrolases. Exogenous antigens that have been endocytosed by the APC are thus readily available for presentation via MHC II molecules; and for this reason this antigen presentation pathway is usually referred to as exogenous. As membrane proteins on their way to degradation in lysosomes as part of their normal turn-over are also contained in the endosomal/lysosomal compartments; exogenous antigens must compete with those derived from endogenous components. Autophagy is also a source of endogenous peptides; autophagosomes constitutively fuse with MHC class II loading compartments. In addition to APCs; other cells of the gastrointestinal tract; such as epithelial cells; express MHC class II molecules and CD74 and act as APCs; which is an unusual trait of the GI tract. To produce a MHC class II molecule that presents an antigen; three MHC class II molecules (heterodimers of an alpha and a beta chain) associate with a CD74 trimer in the ER to form a heterononamer. Soon after the entry of this complex into the endosomal/lysosomal system where antigen processing occurs; CD74 undergoes a sequential degradation by various proteases; including CTSS and CTSL; leaving a small fragment termed CLIP (class-II-associated invariant chain peptide). The removal of CLIP is facilitated by HLA-DM via direct binding to the alpha-beta-CLIP complex so that CLIP is released. HLA-DM stabilizes MHC class II molecules until primary high affinity antigenic peptides are bound. The MHC II molecule bound to a peptide is then transported to the cell membrane surface. In B-cells; the interaction between HLA-DM and MHC class II molecules is regulated by HLA-DO. Primary dendritic cells (DCs) also to express HLA-DO. Lysosomal miroenvironment has been implicated in the regulation of antigen loading into MHC II molecules; increased acidification produces increased proteolysis and efficient peptide loading.

About this Structure

1sje is a 4 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens and Staphylococcus aureus. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

See Also

Reference

  • Zavala-Ruiz Z, Strug I, Walker BD, Norris PJ, Stern LJ. A hairpin turn in a class II MHC-bound peptide orients residues outside the binding groove for T cell recognition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Sep 7;101(36):13279-84. Epub 2004 Aug 26. PMID:15331779 doi:10.1073/pnas.0403371101
  1. Rossman MD, Thompson B, Frederick M, Maliarik M, Iannuzzi MC, Rybicki BA, Pandey JP, Newman LS, Magira E, Beznik-Cizman B, Monos D. HLA-DRB1*1101: a significant risk factor for sarcoidosis in blacks and whites. Am J Hum Genet. 2003 Oct;73(4):720-35. Epub 2003 Aug 20. PMID:14508706 doi:10.1086/378097

Proteopedia Page Contributors and Editors (what is this?)

OCA

Personal tools