[GLCM_HUMAN] Defects in GBA are the cause of Gaucher disease (GD) [MIM:230800]; also known as glucocerebrosidase deficiency. GD is the most prevalent lysosomal storage disease, characterized by accumulation of glucosylceramide in the reticulo-endothelial system. Different clinical forms are recognized depending on the presence (neuronopathic forms) or absence of central nervous system involvement, severity and age of onset. [:]                                              Defects in GBA are the cause of Gaucher disease type 1 (GD1) [MIM:230800]; also known as adult non-neuronopathic Gaucher disease. GD1 is characterized by hepatosplenomegaly with consequent anemia and thrombopenia, and bone involvement. The central nervous system is not involved.[:]          Defects in GBA are the cause of Gaucher disease type 2 (GD2) [MIM:230900]; also known as acute neuronopathic Gaucher disease. GD2 is the most severe form and is universally progressive and fatal. It manifests soon after birth, with death generally occurring before patients reach two years of age.        Defects in GBA are the cause of Gaucher disease type 3 (GD3) [MIM:231000]; also known as subacute neuronopathic Gaucher disease. GD3 has central nervous manifestations.       Defects in GBA are the cause of Gaucher disease type 3C (GD3C) [MIM:231005]; also known as pseudo-Gaucher disease or Gaucher-like disease.      Defects in GBA are the cause of Gaucher disease perinatal lethal (GDPL) [MIM:608013]. It is a distinct form of Gaucher disease type 2, characterized by fetal onset. Hydrops fetalis, in utero fetal death and neonatal distress are prominent features. When hydrops is absent, neurologic involvement begins in the first week and leads to death within 3 months. Hepatosplenomegaly is a major sign, and is associated with ichthyosis, arthrogryposis, and facial dysmorphism.      Note=Perinatal lethal Gaucher disease is associated with non-immune hydrops fetalis, a generalized edema of the fetus with fluid accumulation in the body cavities due to non-immune causes. Non-immune hydrops fetalis is not a diagnosis in itself but a symptom, a feature of many genetic disorders, and the end-stage of a wide variety of disorders.      Defects in GBA contribute to susceptibility to Parkinson disease (PARK) [MIM:168600]. A complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by bradykinesia, resting tremor, muscular rigidity and postural instability. Additional features are characteristic postural abnormalities, dysautonomia, dystonic cramps, and dementia. The pathology of Parkinson disease involves the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the presence of Lewy bodies (intraneuronal accumulations of aggregated proteins), in surviving neurons in various areas of the brain. The disease is progressive and usually manifests after the age of 50 years, although early-onset cases (before 50 years) are known. The majority of the cases are sporadic suggesting a multifactorial etiology based on environmental and genetic factors. However, some patients present with a positive family history for the disease. Familial forms of the disease usually begin at earlier ages and are associated with atypical clinical features.     
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Gaucher disease, the most common lysosomal storage disease, is caused by mutations in the gene that encodes acid-beta-glucosidase (GlcCerase). Type 1 is characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, and types 2 and 3 by early or chronic onset of severe neurological symptoms. No clear correlation exists between the approximately 200 GlcCerase mutations and disease severity, although homozygosity for the common mutations N370S and L444P is associated with non- neuronopathic and neuronopathic disease, respectively. We report the X-ray structure of GlcCerase at 2.0 A resolution. The catalytic domain consists of a (beta/alpha)(8) TIM barrel, as expected for a member of the glucosidase hydrolase A clan. The distance between the catalytic residues E235 and E340 is consistent with a catalytic mechanism of retention. N370 is located on the longest alpha-helix (helix 7), which has several other mutations of residues that point into the TIM barrel. Helix 7 is at the interface between the TIM barrel and a separate immunoglobulin-like domain on which L444 is located, suggesting an important regulatory or structural role for this non-catalytic domain. The structure provides the possibility of engineering improved GlcCerase for enzyme-replacement therapy, and for designing structure-based drugs aimed at restoring the activity of defective GlcCerase.
X-ray structure of human acid-beta-glucosidase, the defective enzyme in Gaucher disease.,Dvir H, Harel M, McCarthy AA, Toker L, Silman I, Futerman AH, Sussman JL EMBO Rep. 2003 Jul;4(7):704-9. PMID:12792654
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.