[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.
Using synchrotron radiation and a CCD detector, X-ray data have been collected at 100 K for the His64Ala mutant of human carbonic anhydrase II complexed with 4-methylimidazole (4-MI) to a maximal 1.05 A resolution, allowing full anisotropic least-squares refinement. The refined model has a conventional R factor of 15.7% for all reflections. The C(alpha) coordinates of the model presented here have an r.m.s. deviation of 0.10 A relative to the previously determined structure at 1.6 A resolution. Several amino-acid residues (six of the 255 observed) have been identified with multiple rotamer side-chain conformations. C, N and O atoms can be differentiated with selective electron-density map contouring. The estimated standard deviations for all main-chain non-H atom bond lengths and angles are 0.013 and 0.030 A, respectively, based on unrestrained full-matrix least-squares refinement. This structure gives detailed information about the tetrahedrally arranged zinc ion coordinated by three histidine N atoms (His94 N(epsilon 2), His96 N(epsilon2) and His119 N(delta1)) and a water/hydroxide, the multiple binding sites of the proton chemical rescue molecule 4-MI and the solvent networks linking the zinc-bound water/hydroxide and 4-MI molecules. This structure presents the highest resolution structure of a carbonic anhydrase isozyme so far determined and adds to the understanding of proton-transfer processes.
The refined atomic structure of carbonic anhydrase II at 1.05 A resolution: implications of chemical rescue of proton transfer.,Duda D, Govindasamy L, Agbandje-McKenna M, Tu C, Silverman DN, McKenna R Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2003 Jan;59(Pt 1):93-104. Epub 2002, Dec 19. PMID:12499545
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Venta PJ, Welty RJ, Johnson TM, Sly WS, Tashian RE. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Belgian family is caused by a point mutation at an invariant histidine residue (107 His----Tyr): complete structure of the normal human CA II gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Nov;49(5):1082-90. PMID:1928091
↑ Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS. Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1804-8. PMID:1542674
↑ Soda H, Yukizane S, Yoshida I, Koga Y, Aramaki S, Kato H. A point mutation in exon 3 (His 107-->Tyr) in two unrelated Japanese patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency with central nervous system involvement. Hum Genet. 1996 Apr;97(4):435-7. PMID:8834238
↑ Shah GN, Bonapace G, Hu PY, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and brain calcification): novel mutations in CA2 identified by direct sequencing expand the opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation. Hum Mutat. 2004 Sep;24(3):272. PMID:15300855 doi:10.1002/humu.9266
↑ Briganti F, Mangani S, Scozzafava A, Vernaglione G, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 Oct;4(5):528-36. PMID:10550681
↑ Kim CY, Whittington DA, Chang JS, Liao J, May JA, Christianson DW. Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. J Med Chem. 2002 Feb 14;45(4):888-93. PMID:11831900
↑ Duda D, Govindasamy L, Agbandje-McKenna M, Tu C, Silverman DN, McKenna R. The refined atomic structure of carbonic anhydrase II at 1.05 A resolution: implications of chemical rescue of proton transfer. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2003 Jan;59(Pt 1):93-104. Epub 2002, Dec 19. PMID:12499545