HUMAN CARBONIC ANHYDRASE II COMPLEXED WITH INHIBITOR 2000-07
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Virtual screening of compound libraries is an alternative and complementary approach to high-throughput screening in the lead discovery process. A new strategy is described to search for possible leads of human carbonic anhydrase II, applying a protocol of several consecutive hierarchical filters involving a preselection based on functional group requirements and fast pharmacophore matching. A suitable pharmacophore is derived by a sophisticated "hot spot" analysis of the binding site to detect regions favorable for protein-ligand interactions. In subsequent steps, molecular similarity with known reference ligands is used to rerank the hits from the pharmacophore matching. Finally the best scored candidates are docked flexibly into the protein binding pocket. After examination of the affinity predictions, 13 compounds were selected for experimental testing. Of these 13, three could be shown to be subnanomolar, one is nanomolar, while a further seven are micromolar inhibitors. The binding mode of two hits could be confirmed by crystal structure analysis. The novelty of the discovered leads is best supported by the fact that a search in the patent literature showed the newly discovered subnanomolar compounds to comprise scaffolds not yet covered by existing patents.
Successful virtual screening for novel inhibitors of human carbonic anhydrase: strategy and experimental confirmation.,Gruneberg S, Stubbs MT, Klebe G J Med Chem. 2002 Aug 15;45(17):3588-602. PMID:12166932
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.