NMR STRUCTURE OF HUMAN INSULIN MUTANT ILE-A2-ALLO-ILE, HIS-B10-ASP, PRO-B28-LYS, LYS-B29-PRO, 15 STRUCTURES
[INS_HUMAN] Defects in INS are the cause of familial hyperproinsulinemia (FHPRI) [MIM:176730].    Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent type 2 (IDDM2) [MIM:125852]. IDDM2 is a multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical fetaures are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus permanent neonatal (PNDM) [MIM:606176]. PNDM is a rare form of diabetes distinct from childhood-onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus type 1. It is characterized by insulin-requiring hyperglycemia that is diagnosed within the first months of life. Permanent neonatal diabetes requires lifelong therapy.  Defects in INS are a cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 10 (MODY10) [MIM:613370]. MODY10 is a form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early adulthood (usually before 25 years of age), a primary defect in insulin secretion and frequent insulin-independence at the beginning of the disease.  
[INS_HUMAN] Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The hydrophobic core of vertebrate insulins contains an invariant isoleucine residue at position A2. Lack of variation may reflect this side-chain's dual contribution to structure and function: Ile(A2) is proposed both to stabilize the A1-A8 alpha-helix and to contribute to a "hidden" functional surface exposed on receptor binding. Substitution of Ile(A2) by alanine results in segmental unfolding of the A1-A8 alpha-helix, lower thermodynamic stability and impaired receptor binding. Such a spectrum of perturbations, although of biophysical interest, confounds interpretation of structure-activity relationships. To investigate the specific contribution of Ile(A2) to insulin's functional surface, we have employed non-standard mutagenesis: inversion of side-chain chirality in engineered monomer allo-Ile(A2)-DKP-insulin. Although the analogue retains native structure and stability, its affinity for the insulin receptor is impaired by 50-fold. Thus, whereas insulin's core readily accommodates allo-isoleucine at A2, its activity is exquisitely sensitive to chiral inversion. We propose that the Ile(A2) side-chain inserts within a chiral pocket of the receptor as part of insulin's hidden functional surface.
Chiral mutagenesis of insulin's hidden receptor-binding surface: structure of an allo-isoleucine(A2) analogue.,Xu B, Hua QX, Nakagawa SH, Jia W, Chu YC, Katsoyannis PG, Weiss MA J Mol Biol. 2002 Feb 22;316(3):435-41. PMID:11866509
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.