[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.
Intermolecular interactions of eleven different fluoroaromatic inhibitors are probed within the scaffolding of the crystal lattice of Phe-131-->Val carbonic anhydrase II. The degree and pattern of fluorine substitution on the inhibitor benzyl ring modulate its size, shape, and electronic character. In turn, these properties affect the geometry of intermolecular interactions between the fluoroaromatic rings of two different inhibitor molecules bound in the crystal lattice, as determined by X-ray crystallography. Depending on the degree and pattern of fluorine substitution, we observe a face-to-face (aromatic-aromatic) interaction, an atom-to-face (carbonyl-aromatic) interaction, or no interaction at all. These interaction geometries are analyzed with regard to van der Waals, electrostatic, and possible charge-transfer effects. For the aromatic-aromatic interactions investigated in this study, with aromatic ring quadrupoles specifically "tuned" by the degree and pattern of fluorination, the structural results suggest that London forces and charge-transfer complexation dominate over weakly polar electrostatic interactions in the association of aromatic ring pairs.
Fluoroaromatic-fluoroaromatic interactions between inhibitors bound in the crystal lattice of human carbonic anhydrase II.,Kim CY, Chandra PP, Jain A, Christianson DW J Am Chem Soc. 2001 Oct 3;123(39):9620-7. PMID:11572683
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Venta PJ, Welty RJ, Johnson TM, Sly WS, Tashian RE. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Belgian family is caused by a point mutation at an invariant histidine residue (107 His----Tyr): complete structure of the normal human CA II gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Nov;49(5):1082-90. PMID:1928091
↑ Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS. Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1804-8. PMID:1542674
↑ Soda H, Yukizane S, Yoshida I, Koga Y, Aramaki S, Kato H. A point mutation in exon 3 (His 107-->Tyr) in two unrelated Japanese patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency with central nervous system involvement. Hum Genet. 1996 Apr;97(4):435-7. PMID:8834238
↑ Shah GN, Bonapace G, Hu PY, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and brain calcification): novel mutations in CA2 identified by direct sequencing expand the opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation. Hum Mutat. 2004 Sep;24(3):272. PMID:15300855 doi:10.1002/humu.9266
↑ Briganti F, Mangani S, Scozzafava A, Vernaglione G, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 Oct;4(5):528-36. PMID:10550681
↑ Kim CY, Whittington DA, Chang JS, Liao J, May JA, Christianson DW. Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. J Med Chem. 2002 Feb 14;45(4):888-93. PMID:11831900
↑ Kim CY, Chandra PP, Jain A, Christianson DW. Fluoroaromatic-fluoroaromatic interactions between inhibitors bound in the crystal lattice of human carbonic anhydrase II. J Am Chem Soc. 2001 Oct 3;123(39):9620-7. PMID:11572683