[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.
The three-dimensional structures of Leu-198-->Glu, Leu-198-->His, Leu-198-->Arg, and Leu-198-->Ala variants of human carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) have each been determined by X-ray crystallographic methods to a resolution of 2.0 A. The side chain of Leu-198 is located at the mouth of the active site hydrophobic pocket, and this pocket is required for substrate association. Hydrophobic-->hydrophilic amino acid substitutions at the mouth of the pocket decrease kcat/KM for CO2 hydration: the CO2 hydrase activities of Leu-198-->Glu, Leu-198-->His, and Leu-198-->Arg CAIIs are diminished 19-fold, 10-fold, and 17-fold, respectively, relative to the wild-type enzyme; however, the substitution of a compact aliphatic side chain for Leu-198 has a smaller effect on catalysis, in that Leu-198-->Ala CAII exhibits only a 3-fold decrease in CO2 hydrase activity [Krebs, J. F., Rana, F., Dluhy, R. A., & Fierke, C. A. (1993) Biochemistry (preceding paper in this issue)]. It is intriguing that CO2 hydrase activity is not severely diminished in Leu-198-->Arg CAII, even though the side chain of Arg-198 blocks the hydrophobic pocket. Therefore, the bulky side chain of Arg-198 must be reasonably mobile in order to accommodate substrate association. Significantly, a residue larger than the wild-type Leu-198 side chain does not necessarily block the substrate association pocket; e.g., the side chain of Glu-198 packs against a hydrophobic patch, the net result of which is a wider mouth for the pocket.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Structural consequences of hydrophilic amino acid substitutions in the hydrophobic pocket of human carbonic anhydrase II.,Nair SK, Christianson DW Biochemistry. 1993 May 4;32(17):4506-14. PMID:8485129
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Venta PJ, Welty RJ, Johnson TM, Sly WS, Tashian RE. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Belgian family is caused by a point mutation at an invariant histidine residue (107 His----Tyr): complete structure of the normal human CA II gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Nov;49(5):1082-90. PMID:1928091
↑ Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS. Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1804-8. PMID:1542674
↑ Soda H, Yukizane S, Yoshida I, Koga Y, Aramaki S, Kato H. A point mutation in exon 3 (His 107-->Tyr) in two unrelated Japanese patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency with central nervous system involvement. Hum Genet. 1996 Apr;97(4):435-7. PMID:8834238
↑ Shah GN, Bonapace G, Hu PY, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and brain calcification): novel mutations in CA2 identified by direct sequencing expand the opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation. Hum Mutat. 2004 Sep;24(3):272. PMID:15300855 doi:10.1002/humu.9266
↑ Briganti F, Mangani S, Scozzafava A, Vernaglione G, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 Oct;4(5):528-36. PMID:10550681
↑ Kim CY, Whittington DA, Chang JS, Liao J, May JA, Christianson DW. Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. J Med Chem. 2002 Feb 14;45(4):888-93. PMID:11831900
↑ Nair SK, Christianson DW. Structural consequences of hydrophilic amino acid substitutions in the hydrophobic pocket of human carbonic anhydrase II. Biochemistry. 1993 May 4;32(17):4506-14. PMID:8485129