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|1ghw, resolution 1.75Å ()|
A NOVEL SERINE PROTEASE INHIBITION MOTIF INVOLVING A MULTI-CENTERED SHORT HYDROGEN BONDING NETWORK AT THE ACTIVE SITE
We describe a new serine protease inhibition motif in which binding is mediated by a cluster of very short hydrogen bonds (<2.3 A) at the active site. This protease-inhibitor binding paradigm is observed at high resolution in a large set of crystal structures of trypsin, thrombin, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) bound with a series of small molecule inhibitors (2-(2-phenol)indoles and 2-(2-phenol)benzimidazoles). In each complex there are eight enzyme-inhibitor or enzyme-water-inhibitor hydrogen bonds at the active site, three of which are very short. These short hydrogen bonds connect a triangle of oxygen atoms comprising O(gamma)(Ser195), a water molecule co-bound in the oxyanion hole (H(2)O(oxy)), and the phenolate oxygen atom of the inhibitor (O6'). Two of the other hydrogen bonds between the inhibitor and active site of the trypsin and uPA complexes become short in the thrombin counterparts, extending the three-centered short hydrogen-bonding array into a tetrahedral array of atoms (three oxygen and one nitrogen) involved in short hydrogen bonds. In the uPA complexes, the extensive hydrogen-bonding interactions at the active site prevent the inhibitor S1 amidine from forming direct hydrogen bonds with Asp189 because the S1 site is deeper in uPA than in trypsin or thrombin.Ionization equilibria at the active site associated with inhibitor binding are probed through determination and comparison of structures over a wide range of pH (3.5 to 11.4) of thrombin complexes and of trypsin complexes in three different crystal forms. The high-pH trypsin-inhibitor structures suggest that His57 is protonated at pH values as high as 9.5. The pH-dependent inhibition of trypsin, thrombin, uPA and factor Xa by 2-(2-phenol)benzimidazole analogs in which the pK(a) of the phenol group is modulated is shown to be consistent with a binding process involving ionization of both the inhibitor and the enzyme. These data further suggest that the pK(a) of His57 of each protease in the unbound state in solution is about the same, approximately 6.8. By comparing inhibition constants (K(i) values), inhibitor solubilities, inhibitor conformational energies and corresponding structures of short and normal hydrogen bond-mediated complexes, we have estimated the contribution of the short hydrogen bond networks to inhibitor affinity ( approximately 1.7 kcal/mol). The structures and K(i) values associated with the short hydrogen-bonding motif are compared with those corresponding to an alternate, Zn(2+)-mediated inhibition motif at the active site. Structural differences among apo-enzymes, enzyme-inhibitor and enzyme-inhibitor-Zn(2+) complexes are discussed in the context of affinity determinants, selectivity development, and structure-based inhibitor design.
A novel serine protease inhibition motif involving a multi-centered short hydrogen bonding network at the active site., Katz BA, Elrod K, Luong C, Rice MJ, Mackman RL, Sprengeler PA, Spencer J, Hataye J, Janc J, Link J, Litvak J, Rai R, Rice K, Sideris S, Verner E, Young W, J Mol Biol. 2001 Apr 13;307(5):1451-86. PMID:11292354
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
[THRB_HUMAN] Defects in F2 are the cause of factor II deficiency (FA2D) [MIM:613679]. It is a very rare blood coagulation disorder characterized by mucocutaneous bleeding symptoms. The severity of the bleeding manifestations correlates with blood factor II levels. Genetic variations in F2 may be a cause of susceptibility to ischemic stroke (ISCHSTR) [MIM:601367]; also known as cerebrovascular accident or cerebral infarction. A stroke is an acute neurologic event leading to death of neural tissue of the brain and resulting in loss of motor, sensory and/or cognitive function. Ischemic strokes, resulting from vascular occlusion, is considered to be a highly complex disease consisting of a group of heterogeneous disorders with multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. Defects in F2 are the cause of thrombophilia due to thrombin defect (THPH1) [MIM:188050]. It is a multifactorial disorder of hemostasis characterized by abnormal platelet aggregation in response to various agents and recurrent thrombi formation. Note=A common genetic variation in the 3-prime untranslated region of the prothrombin gene is associated with elevated plasma prothrombin levels and an increased risk of venous thrombosis. Defects in F2 are associated with susceptibility to pregnancy loss, recurrent, type 2 (RPRGL2) [MIM:614390]. A common complication of pregnancy, resulting in spontaneous abortion before the fetus has reached viability. The term includes all miscarriages from the time of conception until 24 weeks of gestation. Recurrent pregnancy loss is defined as 3 or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.
[THRB_HUMAN] Thrombin, which cleaves bonds after Arg and Lys, converts fibrinogen to fibrin and activates factors V, VII, VIII, XIII, and, in complex with thrombomodulin, protein C. Functions in blood homeostasis, inflammation and wound healing. [HIR2_HIRME] Hirudin is a potent thrombin-specific protease inhibitor. It forms a stable non-covalent complex with alpha-thrombin, thereby abolishing its ability to cleave fibrinogen.
About this Structure
- Katz BA, Elrod K, Luong C, Rice MJ, Mackman RL, Sprengeler PA, Spencer J, Hataye J, Janc J, Link J, Litvak J, Rai R, Rice K, Sideris S, Verner E, Young W. A novel serine protease inhibition motif involving a multi-centered short hydrogen bonding network at the active site. J Mol Biol. 2001 Apr 13;307(5):1451-86. PMID:11292354 doi:10.1006/jmbi.2001.4516
- ↑ Wang W, Fu Q, Zhou R, Wu W, Ding Q, Hu Y, Wang X, Wang H, Wang Z. Prothrombin Shanghai: hypoprothrombinaemia caused by substitution of Gla29 by Gly. Haemophilia. 2004 Jan;10(1):94-7. PMID:14962227
- ↑ Board PG, Shaw DC. Determination of the amino acid substitution in human prothrombin type 3 (157 Glu leads to Lys) and the localization of a third thrombin cleavage site. Br J Haematol. 1983 Jun;54(2):245-54. PMID:6405779
- ↑ Rabiet MJ, Furie BC, Furie B. Molecular defect of prothrombin Barcelona. Substitution of cysteine for arginine at residue 273. J Biol Chem. 1986 Nov 15;261(32):15045-8. PMID:3771562
- ↑ Miyata T, Morita T, Inomoto T, Kawauchi S, Shirakami A, Iwanaga S. Prothrombin Tokushima, a replacement of arginine-418 by tryptophan that impairs the fibrinogen clotting activity of derived thrombin Tokushima. Biochemistry. 1987 Feb 24;26(4):1117-22. PMID:3567158
- ↑ Inomoto T, Shirakami A, Kawauchi S, Shigekiyo T, Saito S, Miyoshi K, Morita T, Iwanaga S. Prothrombin Tokushima: characterization of dysfunctional thrombin derived from a variant of human prothrombin. Blood. 1987 Feb;69(2):565-9. PMID:3801671
- ↑ Henriksen RA, Mann KG. Identification of the primary structural defect in the dysthrombin thrombin Quick I: substitution of cysteine for arginine-382. Biochemistry. 1988 Dec 27;27(26):9160-5. PMID:3242619
- ↑ Henriksen RA, Mann KG. Substitution of valine for glycine-558 in the congenital dysthrombin thrombin Quick II alters primary substrate specificity. Biochemistry. 1989 Mar 7;28(5):2078-82. PMID:2719946
- ↑ Miyata T, Aruga R, Umeyama H, Bezeaud A, Guillin MC, Iwanaga S. Prothrombin Salakta: substitution of glutamic acid-466 by alanine reduces the fibrinogen clotting activity and the esterase activity. Biochemistry. 1992 Aug 25;31(33):7457-62. PMID:1354985
- ↑ Morishita E, Saito M, Kumabashiri I, Asakura H, Matsuda T, Yamaguchi K. Prothrombin Himi: a compound heterozygote for two dysfunctional prothrombin molecules (Met-337-->Thr and Arg-388-->His). Blood. 1992 Nov 1;80(9):2275-80. PMID:1421398
- ↑ Iwahana H, Yoshimoto K, Shigekiyo T, Shirakami A, Saito S, Itakura M. Detection of a single base substitution of the gene for prothrombin Tokushima. The application of PCR-SSCP for the genetic and molecular analysis of dysprothrombinemia. Int J Hematol. 1992 Feb;55(1):93-100. PMID:1349838
- ↑ James HL, Kim DJ, Zheng DQ, Girolami A. Prothrombin Padua I: incomplete activation due to an amino acid substitution at a factor Xa cleavage site. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 1994 Oct;5(5):841-4. PMID:7865694
- ↑ Degen SJ, McDowell SA, Sparks LM, Scharrer I. Prothrombin Frankfurt: a dysfunctional prothrombin characterized by substitution of Glu-466 by Ala. Thromb Haemost. 1995 Feb;73(2):203-9. PMID:7792730
- ↑ Casas JP, Hingorani AD, Bautista LE, Sharma P. Meta-analysis of genetic studies in ischemic stroke: thirty-two genes involving approximately 18,000 cases and 58,000 controls. Arch Neurol. 2004 Nov;61(11):1652-61. PMID:15534175 doi:61/11/1652
- ↑ Pihusch R, Buchholz T, Lohse P, Rubsamen H, Rogenhofer N, Hasbargen U, Hiller E, Thaler CJ. Thrombophilic gene mutations and recurrent spontaneous abortion: prothrombin mutation increases the risk in the first trimester. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2001 Aug;46(2):124-31. PMID:11506076
- ↑ Glenn KC, Frost GH, Bergmann JS, Carney DH. Synthetic peptides bind to high-affinity thrombin receptors and modulate thrombin mitogenesis. Pept Res. 1988 Nov-Dec;1(2):65-73. PMID:2856554