[F13A_HUMAN] Defects in F13A1 are the cause of factor XIII subunit A deficiency (FA13AD) [MIM:613225]. FA13AD is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a life-long bleeding tendency, impaired wound healing and spontaneous abortion in affected women.
[F13A_HUMAN] Factor XIII is activated by thrombin and calcium ion to a transglutaminase that catalyzes the formation of gamma-glutamyl-epsilon-lysine cross-links between fibrin chains, thus stabilizing the fibrin clot. Also cross-link alpha-2-plasmin inhibitor, or fibronectin, to the alpha chains of fibrin.
Mechanical stability in many biological materials is provided by the crosslinking of large structural proteins with gamma-glutamyl-epsilon-lysyl amide bonds. The three-dimensional structure of human recombinant factor XIII (EC 18.104.22.168 zymogen; protein-glutamine:amine gamma-glutamyltransferase a chain), a transglutaminase zymogen, has been solved at 2.8-A resolution by x-ray crystallography. This structure shows that each chain of the homodimeric protein is folded into four sequential domains. A catalytic triad reminiscent of that observed in cysteine proteases has been identified in the core domain. The amino-terminal activation peptide of each subunit crosses the dimer interface and partially occludes the opening of the catalytic cavity in the second subunit, preventing substrate binding to the zymogen. A proposal for the mechanism of activation by thrombin and calcium is made that details the structural events leading to active factor XIIIa'.
Three-dimensional structure of a transglutaminase: human blood coagulation factor XIII.,Yee VC, Pedersen LC, Le Trong I, Bishop PD, Stenkamp RE, Teller DC Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Jul 19;91(15):7296-300. PMID:7913750
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Board P, Coggan M, Miloszewski K. Identification of a point mutation in factor XIII A subunit deficiency. Blood. 1992 Aug 15;80(4):937-41. PMID:1353995
↑ Yee VC, Pedersen LC, Le Trong I, Bishop PD, Stenkamp RE, Teller DC. Three-dimensional structure of a transglutaminase: human blood coagulation factor XIII. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Jul 19;91(15):7296-300. PMID:7913750