[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.
Aromatic residues in the hydrophobic core of human carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) influence metal ion binding in the active site. Residues F93, F95, and W97 are contained in a beta-strand that also contains two zinc ligands, H94 and H96. The aromatic amino acids contribute to the high zinc affinity and slow zinc dissociation rate constant of CAII [Hunt, J. A., and Fierke, C. A. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 20364-20372]. Substitution of these aromatic amino acids with smaller side chains enhances Cu(2+) affinity while decreasing Co(2+) and Zn(2+) affinity [Hunt, J. A., Mahiuddin, A., & Fierke, C. A. (1999) Biochemistry 38, 9054-9062]. Here, X-ray crystal structures of zinc-bound F93I/F95M/W97V and F93S/F95L/W97M CAIIs reveal the introduction of new cavities in the hydrophobic core, compensatory movements of surrounding side chains, and the incorporation of buried water molecules; nevertheless, the enzyme maintains tetrahedral zinc coordination geometry. However, a conformational change of direct metal ligand H94 as well as indirect (i.e., "second-shell") ligand Q92 accompanies metal release in both F93I/F95M/W97V and F93S/F95L/W97M CAIIs, thereby eliminating preorientation of the histidine ligands with tetrahedral geometry in the apoenzyme. Only one cobalt-bound variant, F93I/F95M/W97V CAII, maintains tetrahedral metal coordination geometry; F93S/F95L/W97M CAII binds Co(2+) with trigonal bipyramidal coordination geometry due to the addition of azide anion to the metal coordination polyhedron. The copper-bound variants exhibit either square pyramidal or trigonal bipyramidal metal coordination geometry due to the addition of a second solvent molecule to the metal coordination polyhedron. The key finding of this work is that aromatic core residues serve as anchors that help to preorient direct and second-shell ligands to optimize zinc binding geometry and destabilize alternative geometries. These geometrical constraints are likely a main determinant of the enhanced zinc/copper specificity of CAII as compared to small molecule chelators.
Structural influence of hydrophobic core residues on metal binding and specificity in carbonic anhydrase II.,Cox JD, Hunt JA, Compher KM, Fierke CA, Christianson DW Biochemistry. 2000 Nov 14;39(45):13687-94. PMID:11076507
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Venta PJ, Welty RJ, Johnson TM, Sly WS, Tashian RE. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Belgian family is caused by a point mutation at an invariant histidine residue (107 His----Tyr): complete structure of the normal human CA II gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Nov;49(5):1082-90. PMID:1928091
↑ Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS. Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1804-8. PMID:1542674
↑ Soda H, Yukizane S, Yoshida I, Koga Y, Aramaki S, Kato H. A point mutation in exon 3 (His 107-->Tyr) in two unrelated Japanese patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency with central nervous system involvement. Hum Genet. 1996 Apr;97(4):435-7. PMID:8834238
↑ Shah GN, Bonapace G, Hu PY, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and brain calcification): novel mutations in CA2 identified by direct sequencing expand the opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation. Hum Mutat. 2004 Sep;24(3):272. PMID:15300855 doi:10.1002/humu.9266
↑ Briganti F, Mangani S, Scozzafava A, Vernaglione G, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 Oct;4(5):528-36. PMID:10550681
↑ Kim CY, Whittington DA, Chang JS, Liao J, May JA, Christianson DW. Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. J Med Chem. 2002 Feb 14;45(4):888-93. PMID:11831900
↑ Cox JD, Hunt JA, Compher KM, Fierke CA, Christianson DW. Structural influence of hydrophobic core residues on metal binding and specificity in carbonic anhydrase II. Biochemistry. 2000 Nov 14;39(45):13687-94. PMID:11076507