THE MECHANISM OF CYANAMIDE HYDRATION CATALYZED BY CARBONIC ANHYDRASE II REVEALED BY CRYOGENIC X-RAY DIFFRACTION
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The three-dimensional structure of a possible intermediate in the hydration reaction of cyanamide to urea catalyzed by human carbonic anhydrase II (hCAII) has been determined by cryocrystallographic techniques. The crystal structure shows that two different adducts are formed under the experimental conditions and that they have different occupancy in the crystal. The high occupancy form consists of a binary hCAII-cyanamide complex where the substrate has replaced the zinc-bound hydroxide anion present in the native enzyme, maintaining the tetrahedral geometry around the metal ion. The second, low-occupancy form consists of a hCAII-cyanamide-water ternary complex where the catalytic zinc ion, still being bound to cyanamide, is approached by a water molecule in a five-coordinate adduct. While the first form can be considered a nonproductive complex, the second form may represent an intermediate state of the catalyzed reaction where the water molecule is about to perform a nucleophilic attack on the zinc-activated cyanamide substrate. The structural evidence is consistent with the kinetic data previously reported about this recently described hydrolytic reaction catalyzed by hCAII, and indicates that a different mechanism with respect to that generally accepted for the physiologic carbon dioxide hydration reaction may be adopted by the enzyme, depending on the substrate chemical properties.
Mechanism of cyanamide hydration catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase II suggested by cryogenic X-ray diffraction.,Guerri A, Briganti F, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT, Mangani S Biochemistry. 2000 Oct 10;39(40):12391-7. PMID:11015219
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.