THE COMPLEX BETWEEN HUMAN CARBONIC ANHYDRASE II AND THE AROMATIC INHIBITOR 1,2,4-TRIAZOLE
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The X-ray crystal structure of the complex between human carbonic anhydrase II and the inhibitor 1,2,4-triazole has been refined at 1.9 A resolution to a final R-factor of 0.153. Triazole is an analogue of the competitive inhibitor imidazole, but the crystal structure shows a different type of binding to the enzyme. 1,2,4-Triazole is directly bound to the zinc(II) ion through the nitrogen in position 4, replacing the native water/hydroxyl (Wat263) in a distorted four-co-ordinated complex. The interaction of the inhibitor with the active site is completed by two hydrogen bonds to O gamma of Thr200 and to the amide nitrogen atom of Thr199 through the two adjacent N-1 and N-2 atoms. The binding site of triazole overlaps the proposed binding sites for the substrates, explaining the observed competitive behaviour of the inhibitor towards CO2/HCO3- under equilibrium conditions.
Crystal structure of the complex between human carbonic anhydrase II and the aromatic inhibitor 1,2,4-triazole.,Mangani S, Liljas A J Mol Biol. 1993 Jul 5;232(1):9-14. PMID:8331673
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.