[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.
The molecular structures of the acetate complexes of wild-type human carbonic anhydrase II (HCAII) and of E106Q mutant human carbonic anhydrase II were solved with high completeness (89-91%) to 2.1 and 1.9 A resolution, respectively. Both wild-type and mutant enzyme crystallize in space group P2(1) with cell dimensions a = 42.7, b = 41.7, c = 73.0 A and beta = 104.6 degrees. The altered active-site hydrogen-bond network caused by the mutation results in a different binding of the inhibitor in the two complexes. In the mutant, but not in the wild-type complex, a carboxylate O atom is within hydrogen-bond distance of Thr199 Ogamma1. In the wild-type enzyme ligand hydrogen bonding to this atom is normally only found for hydrogen-bond donors. The importance of this discrimination on catalysis by the enzyme is discussed briefly.
Wild-type and E106Q mutant carbonic anhydrase complexed with acetate.,Hakansson K, Briand C, Zaitsev V, Xue Y, Liljas A Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 1994 Jan 1;50(Pt 1):101-4. PMID:15299482
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Venta PJ, Welty RJ, Johnson TM, Sly WS, Tashian RE. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Belgian family is caused by a point mutation at an invariant histidine residue (107 His----Tyr): complete structure of the normal human CA II gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Nov;49(5):1082-90. PMID:1928091
↑ Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS. Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1804-8. PMID:1542674
↑ Soda H, Yukizane S, Yoshida I, Koga Y, Aramaki S, Kato H. A point mutation in exon 3 (His 107-->Tyr) in two unrelated Japanese patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency with central nervous system involvement. Hum Genet. 1996 Apr;97(4):435-7. PMID:8834238
↑ Shah GN, Bonapace G, Hu PY, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and brain calcification): novel mutations in CA2 identified by direct sequencing expand the opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation. Hum Mutat. 2004 Sep;24(3):272. PMID:15300855 doi:10.1002/humu.9266
↑ Briganti F, Mangani S, Scozzafava A, Vernaglione G, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 Oct;4(5):528-36. PMID:10550681
↑ Kim CY, Whittington DA, Chang JS, Liao J, May JA, Christianson DW. Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. J Med Chem. 2002 Feb 14;45(4):888-93. PMID:11831900
↑ Hakansson K, Briand C, Zaitsev V, Xue Y, Liljas A. Wild-type and E106Q mutant carbonic anhydrase complexed with acetate. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 1994 Jan 1;50(Pt 1):101-4. PMID:15299482 doi:10.1107/S0907444993009667