CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF RAP.GMPPNP IN COMPLEX WITH THE RAS-BINDING-DOMAIN OF C-RAF1 KINASE (RAFRBD).
[RAF1_HUMAN] Defects in RAF1 are the cause of Noonan syndrome type 5 (NS5) [MIM:611553]. Noonan syndrome (NS) is a disorder characterized by dysmorphic facial features, short stature, hypertelorism, cardiac anomalies, deafness, motor delay, and a bleeding diathesis. It is a genetically heterogeneous and relatively common syndrome, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 1000-2500 live births.   Defects in RAF1 are the cause of LEOPARD syndrome type 2 (LEOPARD2) [MIM:611554]. LEOPARD syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder allelic with Noonan syndrome. The acronym LEOPARD stands for lentigines, electrocardiographic conduction abnormalities, ocular hypertelorism, pulmonic stenosis, abnormalities of genitalia, retardation of growth, and deafness.
[RAP1A_HUMAN] Induces morphological reversion of a cell line transformed by a Ras oncogene. Counteracts the mitogenic function of Ras, at least partly because it can interact with Ras GAPs and RAF in a competitive manner. [RAF1_HUMAN] Serine/threonine-protein kinase that acts as a regulatory link between the membrane-associated Ras GTPases and the MAPK/ERK cascade, and this critical regulatory link functions as a switch determining cell fate decisions including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, survival and oncogenic transformation. RAF1 activation initiates a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade that comprises a sequential phosphorylation of the dual-specific MAPK kinases (MAP2K1/MEK1 and MAP2K2/MEK2) and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (MAPK3/ERK1 and MAPK1/ERK2). The phosphorylated form of RAF1 (on residues Ser-338 and Ser-339, by PAK1) phosphorylates BAD/Bcl2-antagonist of cell death at 'Ser-75'. Phosphorylates adenylyl cyclases: ADCY2, ADCY5 and ADCY6, resulting in their activation. Phosphorylates PPP1R12A resulting in inhibition of the phosphatase activity. Phosphorylates TNNT2/cardiac muscle troponin T. Can promote NF-kB activation and inhibit signal transducers involved in motility (ROCK2), apoptosis (MAP3K5/ASK1 and STK3/MST2), proliferation and angiogenesis (RB1). Can protect cells from apoptosis also by translocating to the mitochondria where it binds BCL2 and displaces BAD/Bcl2-antagonist of cell death. Regulates Rho signaling and migration, and is required for normal wound healing. Plays a role in the oncogenic transformation of epithelial cells via repression of the TJ protein, occludin (OCLN) by inducing the up-regulation of a transcriptional repressor SNAI2/SLUG, which induces down-regulation of OCLN. Restricts caspase activation in response to selected stimuli, notably Fas stimulation, pathogen-mediated macrophage apoptosis, and erythroid differentiation.      
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The X-ray crystal structure of the complex between the Ras-related protein Rap1A in the GTP-analogue (GppNHp) form and the Ras-binding domain (RBD) of the Ras effector molecule c-Raf1, a Ser/Thr-specific protein kinase, has been solved to a resolution of 2.2 A. It shows that RBD has the ubiquitin superfold and that the structure of Rap1A is very similar to that of Ras. The interaction between the two proteins is mediated by an apparent central antiparallel beta-sheet formed by strands B1-B2 from RBD and strands beta 2-beta 3 from Rap1A. Complex formation is mediated by main-chain and side-chain interactions of the so-called effector residues in the switch I region of Rap1A.
The 2.2 A crystal structure of the Ras-binding domain of the serine/threonine kinase c-Raf1 in complex with Rap1A and a GTP analogue.,Nassar N, Horn G, Herrmann C, Scherer A, McCormick F, Wittinghofer A Nature. 1995 Jun 15;375(6532):554-60. PMID:7791872
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.