1c1y

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1c1y, resolution 1.90Å ()
Ligands: , ,
Related: 1gua
Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Contents

CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF RAP.GMPPNP IN COMPLEX WITH THE RAS-BINDING-DOMAIN OF C-RAF1 KINASE (RAFRBD).

Publication Abstract from PubMed

The X-ray crystal structure of the complex between the Ras-related protein Rap1A in the GTP-analogue (GppNHp) form and the Ras-binding domain (RBD) of the Ras effector molecule c-Raf1, a Ser/Thr-specific protein kinase, has been solved to a resolution of 2.2 A. It shows that RBD has the ubiquitin superfold and that the structure of Rap1A is very similar to that of Ras. The interaction between the two proteins is mediated by an apparent central antiparallel beta-sheet formed by strands B1-B2 from RBD and strands beta 2-beta 3 from Rap1A. Complex formation is mediated by main-chain and side-chain interactions of the so-called effector residues in the switch I region of Rap1A.

The 2.2 A crystal structure of the Ras-binding domain of the serine/threonine kinase c-Raf1 in complex with Rap1A and a GTP analogue., Nassar N, Horn G, Herrmann C, Scherer A, McCormick F, Wittinghofer A, Nature. 1995 Jun 15;375(6532):554-60. PMID:7791872

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Disease

[RAF1_HUMAN] Defects in RAF1 are the cause of Noonan syndrome type 5 (NS5) [MIM:611553]. Noonan syndrome (NS) is a disorder characterized by dysmorphic facial features, short stature, hypertelorism, cardiac anomalies, deafness, motor delay, and a bleeding diathesis. It is a genetically heterogeneous and relatively common syndrome, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 1000-2500 live births.[1][2][3] Defects in RAF1 are the cause of LEOPARD syndrome type 2 (LEOPARD2) [MIM:611554]. LEOPARD syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder allelic with Noonan syndrome. The acronym LEOPARD stands for lentigines, electrocardiographic conduction abnormalities, ocular hypertelorism, pulmonic stenosis, abnormalities of genitalia, retardation of growth, and deafness.[4]

Function

[RAP1A_HUMAN] Induces morphological reversion of a cell line transformed by a Ras oncogene. Counteracts the mitogenic function of Ras, at least partly because it can interact with Ras GAPs and RAF in a competitive manner. [RAF1_HUMAN] Serine/threonine-protein kinase that acts as a regulatory link between the membrane-associated Ras GTPases and the MAPK/ERK cascade, and this critical regulatory link functions as a switch determining cell fate decisions including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, survival and oncogenic transformation. RAF1 activation initiates a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade that comprises a sequential phosphorylation of the dual-specific MAPK kinases (MAP2K1/MEK1 and MAP2K2/MEK2) and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (MAPK3/ERK1 and MAPK1/ERK2). The phosphorylated form of RAF1 (on residues Ser-338 and Ser-339, by PAK1) phosphorylates BAD/Bcl2-antagonist of cell death at 'Ser-75'. Phosphorylates adenylyl cyclases: ADCY2, ADCY5 and ADCY6, resulting in their activation. Phosphorylates PPP1R12A resulting in inhibition of the phosphatase activity. Phosphorylates TNNT2/cardiac muscle troponin T. Can promote NF-kB activation and inhibit signal transducers involved in motility (ROCK2), apoptosis (MAP3K5/ASK1 and STK3/MST2), proliferation and angiogenesis (RB1). Can protect cells from apoptosis also by translocating to the mitochondria where it binds BCL2 and displaces BAD/Bcl2-antagonist of cell death. Regulates Rho signaling and migration, and is required for normal wound healing. Plays a role in the oncogenic transformation of epithelial cells via repression of the TJ protein, occludin (OCLN) by inducing the up-regulation of a transcriptional repressor SNAI2/SLUG, which induces down-regulation of OCLN. Restricts caspase activation in response to selected stimuli, notably Fas stimulation, pathogen-mediated macrophage apoptosis, and erythroid differentiation.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11]

About this Structure

1c1y is a 2 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

See Also

Reference

  • Nassar N, Horn G, Herrmann C, Scherer A, McCormick F, Wittinghofer A. The 2.2 A crystal structure of the Ras-binding domain of the serine/threonine kinase c-Raf1 in complex with Rap1A and a GTP analogue. Nature. 1995 Jun 15;375(6532):554-60. PMID:7791872 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/375554a0
  • Rehmann H, Arias-Palomo E, Hadders MA, Schwede F, Llorca O, Bos JL. Structure of Epac2 in complex with a cyclic AMP analogue and RAP1B. Nature. 2008 Sep 4;455(7209):124-7. Epub 2008 Jul 27. PMID:18660803 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature07187
  • Cort JR, Chiang Y, Zheng D, Montelione GT, Kennedy MA. NMR structure of conserved eukaryotic protein ZK652.3 from C. elegans: a ubiquitin-like fold. Proteins. 2002 Sep 1;48(4):733-6. PMID:12211038 doi:10.1002/prot.10197
  1. Pandit B, Sarkozy A, Pennacchio LA, Carta C, Oishi K, Martinelli S, Pogna EA, Schackwitz W, Ustaszewska A, Landstrom A, Bos JM, Ommen SR, Esposito G, Lepri F, Faul C, Mundel P, Lopez Siguero JP, Tenconi R, Selicorni A, Rossi C, Mazzanti L, Torrente I, Marino B, Digilio MC, Zampino G, Ackerman MJ, Dallapiccola B, Tartaglia M, Gelb BD. Gain-of-function RAF1 mutations cause Noonan and LEOPARD syndromes with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Nat Genet. 2007 Aug;39(8):1007-12. Epub 2007 Jul 1. PMID:17603483 doi:10.1038/ng2073
  2. Razzaque MA, Nishizawa T, Komoike Y, Yagi H, Furutani M, Amo R, Kamisago M, Momma K, Katayama H, Nakagawa M, Fujiwara Y, Matsushima M, Mizuno K, Tokuyama M, Hirota H, Muneuchi J, Higashinakagawa T, Matsuoka R. Germline gain-of-function mutations in RAF1 cause Noonan syndrome. Nat Genet. 2007 Aug;39(8):1013-7. Epub 2007 Jul 1. PMID:17603482 doi:ng2078
  3. Longoni M, Moncini S, Cisternino M, Morella IM, Ferraiuolo S, Russo S, Mannarino S, Brazzelli V, Coi P, Zippel R, Venturin M, Riva P. Noonan syndrome associated with both a new Jnk-activating familial SOS1 and a de novo RAF1 mutations. Am J Med Genet A. 2010 Sep;152A(9):2176-84. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.33564. PMID:20683980 doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.33564
  4. Pandit B, Sarkozy A, Pennacchio LA, Carta C, Oishi K, Martinelli S, Pogna EA, Schackwitz W, Ustaszewska A, Landstrom A, Bos JM, Ommen SR, Esposito G, Lepri F, Faul C, Mundel P, Lopez Siguero JP, Tenconi R, Selicorni A, Rossi C, Mazzanti L, Torrente I, Marino B, Digilio MC, Zampino G, Ackerman MJ, Dallapiccola B, Tartaglia M, Gelb BD. Gain-of-function RAF1 mutations cause Noonan and LEOPARD syndromes with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Nat Genet. 2007 Aug;39(8):1007-12. Epub 2007 Jul 1. PMID:17603483 doi:10.1038/ng2073
  5. Dubois T, Rommel C, Howell S, Steinhussen U, Soneji Y, Morrice N, Moelling K, Aitken A. 14-3-3 is phosphorylated by casein kinase I on residue 233. Phosphorylation at this site in vivo regulates Raf/14-3-3 interaction. J Biol Chem. 1997 Nov 14;272(46):28882-8. PMID:9360956
  6. Chen J, Fujii K, Zhang L, Roberts T, Fu H. Raf-1 promotes cell survival by antagonizing apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 through a MEK-ERK independent mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Jul 3;98(14):7783-8. Epub 2001 Jun 26. PMID:11427728 doi:10.1073/pnas.141224398
  7. Broustas CG, Grammatikakis N, Eto M, Dent P, Brautigan DL, Kasid U. Phosphorylation of the myosin-binding subunit of myosin phosphatase by Raf-1 and inhibition of phosphatase activity. J Biol Chem. 2002 Jan 25;277(4):3053-9. Epub 2001 Nov 21. PMID:11719507 doi:10.1074/jbc.M106343200
  8. Ding Q, Gros R, Gray ID, Taussig R, Ferguson SS, Feldman RD. Raf kinase activation of adenylyl cyclases: isoform-selective regulation. Mol Pharmacol. 2004 Oct;66(4):921-8. PMID:15385642 doi:10.1124/mol.66.4.
  9. O'Neill E, Rushworth L, Baccarini M, Kolch W. Role of the kinase MST2 in suppression of apoptosis by the proto-oncogene product Raf-1. Science. 2004 Dec 24;306(5705):2267-70. PMID:15618521 doi:10.1126/science.1103233
  10. Jin S, Zhuo Y, Guo W, Field J. p21-activated Kinase 1 (Pak1)-dependent phosphorylation of Raf-1 regulates its mitochondrial localization, phosphorylation of BAD, and Bcl-2 association. J Biol Chem. 2005 Jul 1;280(26):24698-705. Epub 2005 Apr 22. PMID:15849194 doi:10.1074/jbc.M413374200
  11. Wang Z, Wade P, Mandell KJ, Akyildiz A, Parkos CA, Mrsny RJ, Nusrat A. Raf 1 represses expression of the tight junction protein occludin via activation of the zinc-finger transcription factor slug. Oncogene. 2007 Feb 22;26(8):1222-30. Epub 2006 Aug 21. PMID:16924233 doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1209902

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