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|1bnw, resolution 2.25Å ()|
CARBONIC ANHYDRASE II INHIBITOR
X-ray crystal structures of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) complexed with sulfonamide inhibitors illuminate the structural determinants of high affinity binding in the nanomolar regime. The primary binding interaction is the coordination of a primary sulfonamide group to the active site zinc ion. Secondary interactions fine-tune tight binding in regions of the active site cavity >5 A away from zinc, and this work highlights three such features: (1) advantageous conformational restraints of a bicyclic thienothiazene-6-sulfonamide-1,1-dioxide inhibitor skeleton in comparison with a monocyclic 2,5-thiophenedisulfonamide skeleton; (2) optimal substituents attached to a secondary sulfonamide group targeted to interact with hydrophobic patches defined by Phe131, Leu198, and Pro202; and (3) optimal stereochemistry and configuration at the C-4 position of bicyclic thienothiazene-6-sulfonamides; the C-4 substituent can interact with His64, the catalytic proton shuttle. Structure-activity relationships rationalize affinity trends observed during the development of brinzolamide (Azopt), the newest carbonic anhydrase inhibitor approved for the treatment of glaucoma.
Structural analysis of inhibitor binding to human carbonic anhydrase II., Boriack-Sjodin PA, Zeitlin S, Chen HH, Crenshaw L, Gross S, Dantanarayana A, Delgado P, May JA, Dean T, Christianson DW, Protein Sci. 1998 Dec;7(12):2483-9. PMID:9865942
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.
About this Structure
- Boriack-Sjodin PA, Zeitlin S, Chen HH, Crenshaw L, Gross S, Dantanarayana A, Delgado P, May JA, Dean T, Christianson DW. Structural analysis of inhibitor binding to human carbonic anhydrase II. Protein Sci. 1998 Dec;7(12):2483-9. PMID:9865942
- ↑ Venta PJ, Welty RJ, Johnson TM, Sly WS, Tashian RE. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Belgian family is caused by a point mutation at an invariant histidine residue (107 His----Tyr): complete structure of the normal human CA II gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Nov;49(5):1082-90. PMID:1928091
- ↑ Roth DE, Venta PJ, Tashian RE, Sly WS. Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1804-8. PMID:1542674
- ↑ Soda H, Yukizane S, Yoshida I, Koga Y, Aramaki S, Kato H. A point mutation in exon 3 (His 107-->Tyr) in two unrelated Japanese patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency with central nervous system involvement. Hum Genet. 1996 Apr;97(4):435-7. PMID:8834238
- ↑ Hu PY, Lim EJ, Ciccolella J, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Seven novel mutations in carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome identified by SSCP and direct sequencing analysis. Hum Mutat. 1997;9(5):383-7. PMID:9143915 doi:<383::AID-HUMU1>3.0.CO;2-5 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(1997)9:5<383::AID-HUMU1>3.0.CO;2-5
- ↑ Shah GN, Bonapace G, Hu PY, Strisciuglio P, Sly WS. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and brain calcification): novel mutations in CA2 identified by direct sequencing expand the opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation. Hum Mutat. 2004 Sep;24(3):272. PMID:15300855 doi:10.1002/humu.9266
- ↑ Briganti F, Mangani S, Scozzafava A, Vernaglione G, Supuran CT. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction? J Biol Inorg Chem. 1999 Oct;4(5):528-36. PMID:10550681
- ↑ Kim CY, Whittington DA, Chang JS, Liao J, May JA, Christianson DW. Structural aspects of isozyme selectivity in the binding of inhibitors to carbonic anhydrases II and IV. J Med Chem. 2002 Feb 14;45(4):888-93. PMID:11831900