THE X-RAY STRUCTURE OF A COMPLEX OF TERN N9 INFLUENZA VIRUS NEURAMINIDASE COMPLEXED WITH THE GLAXO 6-CARBOXAMIDE SIALIC ACID ANALOGUE GR217029
[NRAM_I75A5] Catalyzes the removal of terminal sialic acid residues from viral and cellular glycoconjugates. Cleaves off the terminal sialic acids on the glycosylated HA during virus budding to facilitate virus release. Additionally helps virus spread through the circulation by further removing sialic acids from the cell surface. These cleavages prevent self-aggregation and ensure the efficient spread of the progeny virus from cell to cell. Otherwise, infection would be limited to one round of replication. Described as a receptor-destroying enzyme because it cleaves a terminal sialic acid from the cellular receptors. May facilitate viral invasion of the upper airways by cleaving the sialic acid moities on the mucin of the airway epithelial cells. Likely to plays a role in the budding process through its association with lipid rafts during intracellular transport. May additionally display a raft-association independent effect on budding. Plays a role in the determination of host range restriction on replication and virulence. Sialidase activity in late endosome/lysosome traffic seems to enhance virus replication.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The first paper in this series (see previous article) described structure-activity studies of carboxamide analogues of zanamivir binding to influenza virus sialidase types A and B and showed that inhibitory activity of these compounds was much greater against influenza A enzyme. To understand the large differences in affinities, a number of protein-ligand complexes have been investigated using crystallography and molecular dynamics. The crystallographic studies show that the binding of ligands containing tertiary amide groups is accompanied by the formation of an intramolecular planar salt bridge between two amino acid residues in the active site of the enzyme. It is proposed that the unexpected strong binding of these inhibitors is a result of the burial of hydrophobic surface area and salt-bridge formation in an environment of low dielectric. In sialidase from type A virus, binding of the carboxamide moeity and salt-bridge formation have only a minor effect on the positions of the surrounding residues, whereas in type B enzyme, significant distortion of the protein is observed. The results suggest that the decreased affinity in enzyme from influenza B is directly correlated with the small changes that occur in the amino acid residue interactions accompanying ligand binding. Molecular dynamics calculations have shown that the tendency for salt-bridge formation is greater in influenza A sialidase than influenza B sialidase and that this tendency is a useful descriptor for the prediction of inhibitor potency.
Dihydropyrancarboxamides related to zanamivir: a new series of inhibitors of influenza virus sialidases. 2. Crystallographic and molecular modeling study of complexes of 4-amino-4H-pyran-6-carboxamides and sialidase from influenza virus types A and B.,Taylor NR, Cleasby A, Singh O, Skarzynski T, Wonacott AJ, Smith PW, Sollis SL, Howes PD, Cherry PC, Bethell R, Colman P, Varghese J J Med Chem. 1998 Mar 12;41(6):798-807. PMID:9526556
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.