TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA, R31D MUTANT
[TNFA_HUMAN] Genetic variations in TNF are a cause of susceptibility psoriatic arthritis (PSORAS) [MIM:607507]. PSORAS is an inflammatory, seronegative arthritis associated with psoriasis. It is a heterogeneous disorder ranging from a mild, non-destructive disease to a severe, progressive, erosive arthropathy. Five types of psoriatic arthritis have been defined: asymmetrical oligoarthritis characterized by primary involvement of the small joints of the fingers or toes; asymmetrical arthritis which involves the joints of the extremities; symmetrical polyarthritis characterized by a rheumatoidlike pattern that can involve hands, wrists, ankles, and feet; arthritis mutilans, which is a rare but deforming and destructive condition; arthritis of the sacroiliac joints and spine (psoriatic spondylitis).
[TNFA_HUMAN] Cytokine that binds to TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. It is mainly secreted by macrophages and can induce cell death of certain tumor cell lines. It is potent pyrogen causing fever by direct action or by stimulation of interleukin-1 secretion and is implicated in the induction of cachexia, Under certain conditions it can stimulate cell proliferation and induce cell differentiation. The TNF intracellular domain (ICD) form induces IL12 production in dendritic cells.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Crystal structures have been determined of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and its R31D mutant that preferentially binds to TNF receptor R1 with more than seven times the relative affinity of binding to receptor R2. Crystals of the wild-type TNF were of space group P4(1)2(1)2 and had unit cell dimensions of a = b = 94.7 and c = 117.4 A. Refinement of the structure gave an R-factor of 22.3% at 2.5 A resolution. The crystals of TNF R31D mutant diffracted to 2.3 A resolution, and were of identical space group to the wild type with unit cell dimensions of a = b = 95.4 and c = 116.2 A, and the structure was refined to an R-factor of 21.8%. The trimer structures of the wild-type and mutant TNF were similar with a root mean square (r.m.s.) deviation of 0.56 A for Calpha atoms; however, the subunits within each trimer were more variable with an average r.m.s. deviation of 1.00 A on Calpha atoms for pairwise comparison of subunits. Model complexes of TNF with receptors R1 and R2 have been used to predict TNF-receptor interactions. Arg31 in all three subunits of wild-type TNF is predicted to form an ionic interaction with the equivalent glutamic acid in both receptors R1 and R2. Asp31 of the TNF R31D mutant is predicted to interact differently with the two receptors. The side chain of Asp31 in two subunits of the TNF mutant is predicted to form hydrogen bond interactions with Ser59 or Cys70 of R1, while it has no predicted interactions with R2. The loss of three strong ionic interactions of Arg31 and the electrostatic repulsion of Asp31 with Glu in the receptors is consistent with the reduced binding of the R31D mutant to both receptors relative to wild-type TNF. The replacement of these ionic interactions by two weaker hydrogen bond interactions between Asp31 of the R31D mutant and R1, compared with no interactions with R2, is in agreement with the observed preferential binding of the R31D mutant to R1 over R2. Analysis of the structure and function of receptor-discriminating mutants of TNF will help understand the biological role of TNF and facilitate its use as an antitumor agent.
Crystal structure of TNF-alpha mutant R31D with greater affinity for receptor R1 compared with R2.,Reed C, Fu ZQ, Wu J, Xue YN, Harrison RW, Chen MJ, Weber IT Protein Eng. 1997 Oct;10(10):1101-7. PMID:9488135
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.